Between 2000 and 2008 the Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for the Community action in the field of water policy had been the principal legal document relating to water policy of the European Union Member States. The adoption of Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive) broadened the scope of the EU law to include protection of themarine environment. This article also covers the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive within Polish legal system. Land based sources make up 80% of all marine environment pollution. The Directive’s aim is twofold: (1) to create uniform legal mechanism for the protection of the inland, coastal and transitional waters for entire Europe, and (2) to achieve environmental, social and economic goals.
The author defines the following: terrorist act; terrorism; ecological terror; terrorist threats; illegal use of terror; terrorist acts in internal and international law. The article discusses terrorism in light of Polish and European law and ecological safety and terrorism (eco-terrorism). Issues o f ecological safety in Europe were addressed in Helsinki in 1975 at the meeting of nations participating in the Conference on Safety and Co-operation in Europe. In the twenty-first century, the general regulations regarding fighting terrorism are applied to ensure ecological safety. Specifically, this refers to the European convention on fighting terrorism laid out in Strasbourg on January 27, 1977 under the auspices of the Council of Europe. The author addressed the issue of actions taken by radical ecologists within the framework of the activities of non-governmental ecological organizations. Actions of a terrorist character undertaken at sea are also discussed. Establishing a contiguous marine coastal zone is an effective method for fighting terrorism.
The article presents the issues related to ecological security of the Baltic Sea. The issue was taken from the perspective of Poland as one of the Baltic States, and also as a Member State of the European Union. The authors discussed the mechanisms and legal instruments which are crucial for the ecological security of the Baltic Sea (i.e. Helsinki Convention of 1974, or Agenda 21 for the Baltic Sea Region “Baltic 21”). The importance of cross-border cooperation has also been emphasized as an essential element of the security policy in the Baltic Sea area. The article also indicated threats to the protection of Baltic waters, among others, eutrophication.
Maritime economy is one of the fields of economy of coastal states. The article tries to identify the legal framework of environmental maritime economy, as the environmental conditions influence and shape the maritime economy in acontemporary world. Environmental maritime economy is a consequence of coexistenceof three fields of law. Economic law, environmental law and maritime law. Those fields of law, which has been extracted from the body of law in an artificial way by using the objective criteria but still they are deeply interre-lated and the borders between them are blurred. Sustainable development principle is one of the main indicators of how the environmental maritime economy should function. Legal framework, international law, EU law and Polish internal law try to precise the exact meaning of sustainable development in the sphere of economic use of maritime resources. This is specially complicated as the ecosystem of the Baltic Sea is highly vulnerable and lots of environmental pressure is being putted on it. Successful implementation of environmental maritime economy should result in achieving prosperous economic activity that will be taking place in the environment of a good quality.
Polish law oil wastes divides them according to their origins. In general, wastes can he divided into communal and industrial, and vessel wastes undoubtedly belong to both groups. The authors report in this work that the list of wastes and the means of their disposal comply fully with European Union directives that have been implemented successively. The introduction to Polish environmental protection law of the integrated permit and the best available technologies should permit the better processing of waste management and ensure compliance with the requirements described in the Second Polish Ecological Policy for 2003-2010. This policy assumes that there will be a decrease in hazards posed by asbestos, the average amount of communal wastes will remain stable, and the pi'oduction of wastes will be limited, including that aboard vessels.