The dual core bit-byte CPU must be equipped with properly designed circuits, providing interface between the two processor units, and making it possible to exploit all its advantages like versatility of the byte unit and speed of the bit unit. First of all, the interface circuits should be designed in such a way, that they dont disturb maximally parallel operation of the units, and that the CPU as a whole works in the same manner as in a standard PLC. The paper presents hardware solutions supporting effective operation of PLC CPU-s. Possibilities of solving problems concerning data exchange between a CPU and peripheral circuits were presented, with a special stress on timers and counters, and also on data exchange between the bit unit and the byte unit. The objective of the proposed solutions is to decrease the time necessary for a CPU to access its peripheries.
The paper discusses the water resources of the Krężniczanka River catchment. The catchment with an area of 224.9 km2 is located south-west of Lublin. The characteristics of the groundwaters and runoff were determined based on hydrological and hydrogeological materials of the Department of Hydrology of the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University (UMCS). Mean runoff in the period from 2010 to 2016 amounted to 125.7 mm, precipitation 629.4 mm, and evapotranspi-ration 503.7 mm. A strong relationship was determined between the rhythm of runoff and ground-water level fluctuations. The contribution of groundwater supply in total runoff equalled 81.5%.
The paper presents the characteristics of shallow groundwaters of the Polesie National Park – one of five national parks in Poland, where main subjects of protection are water-peatland ecosystems. Its functioning depends on the state of water resources. Data from field mapping at the turn of July and August 2013 used for the analysis show untypically high location of groundwaters in the summer period. Such a situation was caused by abundant atmospheric alimentation that occurred in spring and early summer of the analysed year.
The results are based on two experimental high-manganese X98MnAlSiNbTi24-11 and X105MnAlSi24-11 steels subjected to thermo-mechanical treatment by hot-rolling on a semi-industrial processing line. The paper presents the results of diffraction and structural studies using scanning and transmission electron microscopy showing the role of Nb and Ti micro-additives in shaping high strength properties of high-manganese austenitic-ferritic steels with complex carbides. The performed investigations of two experimental steels allow to explain how the change cooling conditions after thermo-mechanical treatment of the analysed steels affects the change of their microstructure and mechanical properties. The obtained results allow assessing the impact of both the chemical composition and the applied thermo-mechanical treatment technology on the structural effects of strengthening of the newly developed steels.