Programming frameworks  are application generators with the following components: library of software modules (building blocks out of which the system is constructed), a method for designing new modules that can be appended to the above mentioned library, a pattern according to which ready modules can be assembled into a complete system jointly exerting control over it and realizing the task at hand. The presented transition function based formalism can be applied to specifying programming frameworks for robot controllers executing very diverse tasks. The paper deals with systems consisting of multiple embodied agents, influencing the environment through e#27;ectors, gathering information from the environment through sensors and communicating with other agents through communication channels. The presented code patterns pertain to behavioural agents. The formalism was instrumental in the design of MRROC++ robot programming framework, which has been used for producing controllers of single and two manipulator systems performing diverse tasks. The formalism introduces rigor into the discussion of the structure of embodied agent controllers. It is used as the means for the specification of the functions of the components of the control system and the structure of the communication links between them. This structures the implementation of a programming framework, and that in turn makes the coding of specific controllers much easier, both from the point of view of dealing with the hardware configuration of the system and the specific task that has to be executed.
The most important feature of bells is their sound. Its clarity and beauty depend, first of all, on the bell’s geometry - particularly the shape of its profile, but also on the quality of alloy used to its cast. Hence, if the melting and pouring parameters could influence the alloy’s properties, what influence they would have on the frequencies of bell’s tone. In the article authors present their own approaches to find answers on that and more questions.
In the present study, Ti6Al4V titanium alloy plates were joined using robotic laser welding method. Pre- and post-weld heat treatments were applied to laser welded joints. After welding stress relieving, solution heat treatment and ageing were also applied to preheated laser welded samples. Effects of heat treatment conditions on microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of robotic laser welded joints were studied. Aged samples were found to be made of coarsened grains compared to microstructures of non-aged samples. There were increases in ductility and impact toughness of samples applied to ageing increased, while hardness and tensile strength of non-aged samples were higher. The highest value for tensile strength and for impact toughness in welded samples have been identified as 840 MPa and 27 J, respectively. Fractures in tensile test samples and base metal impact test samples took place in the form of ductile fracture, while laser welded impact test samples had fractures in the mode of intergranular fractures with either a quasi-cleavage type or tear ridges. EDS analysis carried out for all heat treatment conditions and welding parameters demonstrated that major element losses were not observed in base metal, HAZ and weld metal.
This paper is an overview of the application potential and design challenges of micro air vehicles (MAVs), defined as small enough to be practical for a single-person transport and use. Four types of MAVs are considered: 1) fixed-wing, 2) rotarywing, 3) ornithopters (bird-like flapping) and 4) entomopters (insect-like flapping). In particular, advantages of a propeller-driven delta wing configuration for type 1 are discussed. Some detail is also given for type 4, the least understood of the four, including a new concept of manoeuvre control for such MAVs. The paper concludes with a brief prognostic of the future of each MAV type.
This Article investigates how the European Court of Human Rights becomes competent to make decisions in cases concerning (or taking roots in) “historical situations” preceding the ratiﬁ cation of the European Convention by a given Member State or even the enactment of the Convention. “Historical situations” refer to events that occurred in the period of Second World War or shortly thereafter. In all such cases, the preliminary question arises whether the Court is competent temporally (ratione temporis) to deal with the application. This group of cases concerned usually allegations touching upon the right to life and the right to property. The Court had to decide if the allegation in question related to a temporally closed event (making the Court not competent) or rather to a continuous violation (where the Court could adjudicate). A speciﬁ c set of legal questions arose vis-à-vis the right to life, ﬁ rst of all that of the autonomy of the procedural obligation to conduct an eﬃ cient investigation. The Strasbourg case law did not provide a clear answer. However, following two crucial judgements rendered by the Grand Chamber, the Court has established an interesting legal framework. Article analyses also two other situations having a historical dimension: bringing to justice those accused of war crimes or other crimes under international law (in light of the alleged conﬂ ict with the principle of nullum crimes sine lege) and pursuing authors of pro-Nazi statements or speech denying the reality of Nazi atrocities.
An analytical expression for the standard deviation of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) estimation is derived. It applies to the case where the estimator uses sine fitting. It is shown that, in common circumstances, it is inversely proportional to the actual value of THD, the signal-to-noise ratio and the square root of the number of samples. The proposed expression is validated both with numerical simulations and an experimental setup using a Monte Carlo procedure.
Archives of Environmental Protection is the oldest Polish scientifi c journal regarding environmental engineering and protection. It has been published by the Institute of Environmental Engineering of PAS in Zabrze since 1975. The Committee on Environmental Engineering of PAS became its co-publisher in 2011. The quarterly publishes original articles (earlier, also announcements) concerning broadly understood areas of the environmental engineering and protection. The subjects include: air, land and water protection; technologies of fl ue gases, soil and wastewater treatment; transformations and transportation of pollutants in the environment; measurement techniques used in research and engineering as well as environmental monitoring. The published articles also focus on the reclamation and management of derelict lands, environmental management and other questions related to the environmental engineering and protection. The journal has been abstracted by Thomson Scientific since 2006 in the following databases: Science Citation Index Expanded, Biological Abstracts and BIOSIS Previews. Moreover, the journal was given the impact factor (IF) in 2010. The following article presents statistical data as well as a brief history and description of the journal.