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Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the impact of selected factors on the reduction of organic pollutants, expressed in BOD5 and CODCr, in wastewater treated in a laboratory scale model of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). The factors included in the experiment: the degree of filling the fluidized bed with biomass carriers, hydraulic load, and aeration intensity. The tested model of the bioreactor consisted of five independent chambers with diameter D = 0.14 m and height H = 2.0 m, which were filled with biomass carriers at 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 70% of their active volume. During the test period, hydraulic loads at the level of Qh1 = 0.073 m3·m-2·h-1 and Qh2 = 0.036 m3·m-2·h-1 were applied, which ensured one-day and two-day sewage retention, respectively.The said reactors were subjected to constant aeration at P1 = 3.0 dm3·min-1 and P2 = 5.0 dm3·min-1. The highest efficiency of the reduction of the analysed indicators was demonstrated by reactors filled with carriers in the degree of 40–60%. Based on the statistical analyses (the analyses of the ANOVA variations and the Kruskal-Wallis test) carried out, it was found that the studied factors significantly modified the mutual interaction in the process of reducing BOD5 in treated wastewater of the reactors tested. The significance of the impact of the discussed factors on the values of the studied indicators in treated wastewater depends on mutual interactions between the investigated factors.
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the temperature of wastewater in a biological reactor with activated sludge and the BOD5/N-NH4 ratio in the influent to the treatment plant on nitrification efficiency and the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in treated wastewater. Tests were carried out in a household wastewater treatment plant which collects and treats sewage from a school building and a teacher’s house. During the 3-year study, large fluctuations in the sewage temperature in bioreactor were noted which was closely related to the ambient temperature. There were also large fluctuations in the concentration of organic matter and the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in inflowing sewage. The influence of wastewater temperature in the bioreactor and the BOD5/N-NH4 ratio on the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in treated wastewater was determined using Pearson’s linear correlation. A statistical analysis showed that a 1°C decrease in the temperature of wastewater in the bioreactor increased the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in treated wastewater by 2.64 mgN-NH4·L-1. Moreover, it was found that nitrification depended on the ratio of BOD5 to the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in wastewater flowing into the bioreactor. An increase in the BOD5/N-NH4 ratio by 1 value led to a 5.41 mgN-NH4·L-1 decrease in the concentration of ammonium nitrogen.
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