Abstract The study investigates the genetic differentiation among two subspecies of Allium ursinum L., namely A. ursinum subsp. ursinum and subsp. ucrainicum as well as their putative hybrid that is represented by individuals with intermediate morphology. Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) were applied to determine the status of intermediate morphotypes in terms of their genetic pattern and to assess the level of genetic variability within and between various populations of A. ursinum. The study comprises 144 specimens from nine populations along the east-west transect in Poland, which includes localities of both subspecies and their putative hybrid. Among the examined populations, 48 bands were amplified, of which 45 were found to be polymorphic. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), the neighbour-net analysis and Mantel test showed a strong correlation between genetic variability and geographic distance. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that a greater proportion of total genetic variation resided within populations rather than among them. The Structure Bayesian clustering analysis revealed the presence of three distinct genetic groups within studied populations, where ‘eastern’ genotypes correspond to A. ursinum subsp. ucrainicum, and ‘western’ to subsp. ursinum; whereas the third genetic group has the largest share in the individuals occurring at the border of the distribution ranges of both subspecies. The emergence of the third genetic group is probably an effect of hybridization events occurring within the secondary contact zone. Typical morphologically intermediate populations occur only in a relatively narrow geographical zone, but the hybrid zone revealed by molecular markers is actually much wider than it is suggested by the morphological pattern of individuals. The current distribution pattern of both subspecies of A. ursinum and their hybrid zone is related to the two main directions of postglacial migration of Fagus sylvatica to the area of Poland. The hybrid zone arose as an effect of the secondary contact of two divergent lineages of A. ursinum.
Aconitum lasiocarpum (Carpathian endemic) and A. variegatum (European endemic) occur sympatrically in the Polish Western Carpathians. Here their taxonomic hybrid A. ×pawlowskii occurs. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the taxonomic (Linnaean approach) and genetic structure (PCR-ISSR analysis) of the populations and individuals in two allopatric and four sympatric populations. We determined 309 individuals (OTUs) to species, subspecies and nothospecies using the Linnaean system of classification, and then genetically fingerprinted 39 randomly chosen OTUs. Comparison of the Nei and Li distances obtained from ISSR and morphological matrices using the Mantel test indicated a significant correlation (n = 39, r = 0.53, P = 0.001). Genetic analysis (NEWHYBRIDS) pointed to 7 OTUs as being later-generation hybrids (B1 introgessants) in the sympatric area. Five of them belong to A. variegatum, indicating cryptic introgression, and two belong to A. ×pawlowskii. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NDMS) showed gene flow between A. lasiocarpum and A. ×pawlowskii. Allopatric, morphologically pure A. lasiocarpum and A. variegatum populations differed significantly in their ISSR profiles (Fischer's R×C test, P < 0.0001). Expected heterozygosity (Hj) was significantly (p=0.05) lower in allopatric (0.1261-0.1268) than in sympatric populations (0.1348-0.1509), indicating a genetic melting pot in sympatry. The results support the existence of a natural interspecific hybrid swarm zone in the sympatric area of occurrence of Aconitum, and the taxonomic circumscription of the nothospecies within the Linnaean taxonomic system
Blank handgun shots, party balloon bursts, and a pneumatic compressor with a small-diameter nozzle were used as sources of sound in the assessments of reverberation time, T. The two first sources were of impulse type, while the third one resembled a noise signal source. In this work, 532 values of T were experimentally obtained in four rooms of different volumes and compared. The T values for 1/3 octave frequency bands were found to be independent of the sound source. Reverberation times for the A-frequency-weighting filtered signals were close to one another for the shots and balloon bursts, while those obtained using the compressor nozzle were significantly shorter. The latter effect can be attributed to the relatively high share of high frequency waves in the sound generated by the nozzle. The results show that balloon bursts can be used as handgun shot substitutes in the assessments of reverberation times. While the nozzle noise is rather unsuitable for this purpose, it can be applied in the assessments of T for high frequency waves, up to the ultrasound range. Such acoustic climate information may be useful in designing spaces for high frequency sound-sensitive individuals, e.g. animal shelters.