The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of soybean lecithin as a substitute for egg yolk in milk and tris based extenders in ram semen cryopreservation. Twenty ejaculates were col- lected from four healthy, mature Wrzosówka rams (2-3 years of age). Each ejaculate was divided into four equal aliquots and diluted with four different extenders: 1) milk extender containing 5% egg yolk, 2) milk extender containing 1.5% soybean lecithin, 3) tris extender containing 20% egg yolk, 4) tris extender containing 1.5% soybean lecithin. Extended semen was loaded into 0.25 ml French straws, cooled and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. Total motility, curvilinear velocity, plasma membrane integrity and fertilizing ability of sperm were assessed after thawing. Total mo- tility was lower (p<0.05) in tris-soybean lecithin extender when compared to other extenders. Curvilinear velocity was higher (p<0.05) for spermatozoa cryopreserved in milk-soybean lecithin extender compared to other extenders tested. For the percentage of live sperm no significant difference was observed between extenders. The lambing rate were higher (not statistically signifi- cant) in ewes inseminated with semen doses frozen in milk-soybean lecithin extender (42.9%) than in the tris-egg yolk extender (16.7%). In conclusion, replacing the egg yolk with soybean lecithin was effective in milk but not in tris extender.
A number of micromechanical investigations have been performed to predict behaviour of composite interfaces, showing that the detailed behaviour of the material at these interfaces frequently dominates the behaviour of the composite as a whole. The interfacial interaction is an extremely complex process due to continuous evolution of interfacial zones during deformation and this is particularly true for carbon nanotubes since the interfacial interaction is confined to the discrete molecular level. The atomic strain concept based upon Voronoi tessellation allows analyzing the molecular structure atom by atom, which may give a unique insight into deformation phenomena operative at molecular level such as interface behaviour in nanocomposites.
The five-layer Aurivillius type structures with the general chemical formula Bi5Fe2-xMnxTi3O18, where x = 0, 0.6, 1.2 have been synthesized and tested. The SEM studies showed a significant increase in grain size in the manganese-modified Aurivillius type ceramic material (for x = 1.2). The increase in the amount of manganese ions (Mn3+) affects the decrease in the temperature at which the relaxation processes take place. Namely from 525 K (1 kHz) and 725 K (1 MHz) for BFT sample (x = 0) to 355 K (1 kHz) and 565 K (1 MHz) for BFM12T sample (x = 1.2). Using the Arrhenius’s law and the Vogel-Fulcher’s relationship the activation energy (Ea) and the relaxation time have been calculated. The value of Ea increases with the increase of the Mn amount from 0.737 eV (for x = 0) to 0.915 eV (for x = 1.2).
Multiferroic composites are very promising materials because of their applicability because the magnetoelectric effect occurs in them. The subject of the study were two multiferroic ceramic composites: leaded obtained from powder of the composition PbFe0.5Nb0.5O3 and ferrite powder of the composition Ni0.64Zn0.36Fe2O4 and unleaded which was obtained from the powder of the composition BaFe0.5Nb0.5O3 and the same ferrite powder Ni0.64Zn0.36Fe2O4. For the both multiferroic materials the following studies were conducted: SEM, BSE, EDS, XRD and the temperature dependence of dielectric constant ε(T). Using the previously developed method of calculating the magnetoelectric coupling factor (g), based on dielectric measurements, the magnitude of the magnetoelectric effect in the multiferroic composites was determined.
We present the results of investigations of Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PFN) ceramic samples obtained using two-step synthesis (i.e. columbite method). For obtained samples complex investigations of microstructure, magnetic and electrophysical properties have been performed at low and at high temperatures. Microstructure is characterized by small grains with high homogeneity and high density (low porosity). Impedance of samples and the phase shift angle have been measured using LCR Meter. Next the AC electric conductivity, dielectric permittivity and loss tangent have been calculated. AC conductivity at frequency 3 Hz was measured in similar way using Quantum Design PPMS System in magnetic fields 1000 Oe and 10000 Oe. At temperature range 240K-260K the anomalies of conductivity are observed. These anomalies depend on measuring cycle (heating, cooling) and magnetic field.
The paper presents the results of research on the influence of sintering temperature on microstructure, DC electrical conductivity, dielectric, ferroelectric and magnetic properties of PbFe1/2Nb1/2O3 ceramics doped by Li in the amount of 5.0% wt., in the abbreviation PLiFN. The ceramic samples of the PLiFN material were obtained by the two-stage synthesis – columbite method and sintered by free sintering methods. Introduction to the basic PbFe1/2Nb1/2O3 composition of the lithium admixture to decrease the electrical conductivity and reduction of dielectric loss. The tests have shown that the increase in sintering temperature orders the PLiFN ceramic microstructure, which has a positive effect on its electrophysical properties. At room temperature, the PLiFN ceramic samples show both ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. Considering the functional parameters of the obtained ceramic samples, the optimal technological conditions are 1100°C/2 h.
Our macroscopic observations and microscopic studies conducted by means of a light microscope (LM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) concerning the reproduction biology of Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae) growing in natural conditions in the Antarctic and in a greenhouse in Olsztyn (northern Poland) showed that this plant develops two types of bisexual flowers: opening, chasmogamous flowers and closed, cleistogamous ones. Cleistogamy was caused by a low temperature, high air humidity and strong wind. A small number of microspores differentiated in the microsporangia of C. quitensis , which is typical of cleistogamous species. Microsporocytes, and later micro − spores, formed very thick callose walls. More than twenty spheroidal, polypantoporate pollen grains differentiated in the microsporangium. They germinated on the surface of receptive cells on the dry stigma of the gynoecium or inside the microsporangium. A monosporic embryo sac of the Polygonum type differentiated in the crassinucellar ovule. During this differentiation the nucellus tissue formed and stored reserve materials. In the development of generative cells, a male germ unit (MGU) with differentiated sperm cells was observed. The smaller cell contained mainly mitochondria, and the bigger one plastids. In the process of fertilization in C. quitensis only one nucleus of the sperm cell, without cytoplasm fragments, entered the egg cell, and the proembryo developed according to the Caryophyllad type. Almost all C. quitensis ovules developed and formed perispermic seeds with a completely differentiated embryo both under natural conditions in the Antarctic and in a greenhouse in Olsztyn.
The discovery of (BaxCa1-x)(ZryTi1-x)O3 lead-free ceramics drawn a lot of attention to those novel materials because of their excellent piezoelectric properties. However, quite a little attention has been paid to other features of the material. This article reports a wide range of research, including composition, structure and microstructure, dielectric response and impedance spectroscopy in order to systematize and expand knowledge about this peculiar ceramics and strontium doping effect on its properties. In order to test that influence a series of samples with various strontium concentration, precisely the admixtures of 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 mol% were prepared, as well as basic ceramics to compare obtained results.
In the work five ceramic compounds based on the (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)NbO3 (KNLN) material modified with oxides: Cr2O3, ZnO, Sb2O3 or Fe2O3 (in an amount of 0.5 mol.%) were obtained. The KNLN-type composition powder was prepared by solid phase synthesis from a mixture of simple oxides and carbonates, while compacted of the ceramic samples was conducted by free sintering methods. In the work the effect of the used admixture on the electrophysical properties of the KNLN ceramics was presented. The XRD, EDS tests, the SEM measurements of the morphology ceramic samples, dielectric properties and DC electric conductivity were conducted. The research showed that the used admixtures introduced into the base of KNLN-type composition improve the microstructure of the ceramic samples and improve their sinterability. In the case of the dielectric measurements, it was observed a decrease in the maximum dielectric permittivity at the TC for dopred KNLN-type samples. The addition of an admixture of chromium, zinc, antimony or iron in an amount of 0.5 mol.% to the base composition (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)NbO3 practically does not change the phase transition temperature. The diminution in the density value of doped KNLN ceramics was attributed to the alkali elements volatilization.