Planning in a mining enterprise is a complex and multifaceted action. For this reason, it is necessary to provide its proper organisation and adjust it to the specific conditions of conducting underground mining extraction. The prepared plans must make up a cohesive internal system, unambiguously determining the manner, range and safety requirements of the conducted extraction. In the most general manner, the various types of plans developed by organisational units of mining enterprises can be divided based on the timeframe, type, scope and object of planning. These are strategic plans, tactical plans and subject-based plans. The aim of the article is to present the issue of production planning in a mining enterprise and for the preparation of such a plan, first and foremost, information about, among other things, applicable legal regulations, market conditions and the specificity of a mining enterprise are necessary. Underground extraction of black coal deposits must be conducted while respecting the rules of sustainable development which satisfies current needs, without compromising the ability to satisfy the needs of future generations. Due to the specific nature of mining production, manifested, among other things, by such features as the diversity of conditions for conducting the activity, resulting from the changing geological-mining conditions of the deposit, low flexibility of the production process, associated with the impossibility to conduct alternative production and a very long-lasting investment process, planning the course and magnitude of production in a mining enterprise must proceed with the highest possible diligence. One should take into account a wide range of presented environmental, organisational and technical conditions, deciding about the safety and correctness of the course of the assumed production activities. However, in order to make them economically feasible and produce satisfying results in that regard, it is also necessary to analyse them carefully with respect to financial outcomes
Among the collections of the Saxon State and University Library Dresden (SLUB – Sächsische Landesbibliothek– Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden) there are two handdrawn maps of the Kamieniec Podolski stronghold, so far unpublished in Poland, one by Johann Georg Starcke, and the other by J. G. M. Fürstenhoff.
W zbiorach Państwowej Uniwersyteckiej Biblioteki Saksońskiej w Dreźnie (SLUB – Sächsische Landesbibliothek – Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden) znajdują się dwa rękopiśmienne, dotychczas niepublikowane w Polsce plany Kamieńca Podolskiego: pierwszy sporządził Johann Georg Starcke, drugi wykonał J. G. M. Fürstenhoff.
In order to fully adapt to market requirements, mining enterprises in recent years have implemented standardized systems for quality, safety and health at work and environmental management. The standards for individual systems define the requirements of applying specific procedures and actions to implement the adopted policy aimed at achieving the assumed goals. The combination of business procedures and practices is more effective in the case of their integration than the activities carried out under separate systems. They then function under the name of an integrated management system (IMS). Properly implemented IMSs most often contributes to a more harmonious functioning of the enterprise and the elimination of recurring activities in the areas concerning individual systems, and thus to the optimization of costs related to their implementation and maintenance. Improving the operational efficiency of the mining enterprise and mines included in it, while maintaining the requirements of work safety and environmental protection. In the conditions of a market economy, improving the efficiency of functioning and providing sources of business financing is a key necefity for mining enterprise (Bąk 2007, 2008). Mines need to be properly managed to survive. The key problem is the design and implementation of an efficient management system and its continuous improvement based on the adequacy of system solutions. This is an answer to the question whether the management system of a mining enterprise (mine) corresponds to its real needs in the process of achieving objectives. Improvement of management systems must be based on an appropriate diagnosis. The aim of the article is to present the original solution, which is a tool for improving the integrated management system in Polish mining enterprises.
The radiolarian biostratigraphy of the Middle–Upper Jurassic pelagic siliceous sediments (Czajakowa Radiolarite Formation) in the Niedzica succession of the Pieniny Klippen Belt (Carpathians) is interpreted in terms of their age in a stratotype section, and facies equivalents in other tectonic-facies units of this region. The siliceous sediments are represented by radiolarian cherts and silicified limestones which are underlain and overlain by red nodular limestones, equivalents of the Rosso Ammonitico facies. The radiolarian association includes thirty-seven taxa belonging to twenty one genera which represent the Northern Tethyan Palaeogeographic Province. Key radiolarians recorded provide a means of correlation with zonation schemes based on Unitary Associations defined for the Jurassic Tethyan sediments. The age of the Czajakowa Radiolarite Formation in the stratotype section is determined as U.A.Z.9 to U.A.Z.11 corresponding to middle Oxfordian up to Kimmeridgian. Comparison of radiolarian biozones from the stratotype section with other facial equivalent sections in the Pieniny Klippen Belt reveals a significant diachronism for both the lower and the upper limits of the Jurassic pelagic siliceous facies.
Fuzzy logic determination of the material hardening parameters based on the Heyer’s method was applied in this research. As the fuzzy input variables, the length of two measuring bases and the maximum force registered in the Heyer’s test were used. Firstly, the numerical experiment (the simulation of the fuzzification of the input data) with the assumed disturbance of input variables was performed. Next, on the basis of experimental investigations (eleven samples made from the same material), the membership functions associated with the input data were created. After that, the fuzzy analysis was examined. Fuzzy material hardening constants obtained by means of the α-level optimization and the extension principle methods were compared. Discrete values of the hardening data are found in the defuzzification process, by application of the mass center method.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the degree of pollution of bottom sediments from small water reservoirs with heavy metals on the basis of geochemical criteria: the enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index. The investigations concerned sediment from eight small water reservoirs located in the Kielce Highland. Selected heavy metals, including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and zinc, were determined using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry method. Additionally, particle size distribution and the content of organic matter expressed as loss of ignition were designated. The concentration of heavy metals in sediments was characterized by a great variety. The sediments of Morawica and Rejów show very high and extremely high enrichment in Cr, Zn, Pb and Cd. The values of EF>20 indicate also an extremely high enrichment in Cd of sediments in Mostki. In addition, over 50% of the samples of sediment from Suchedniów, Kaniów, Mostki and Jaśle reservoirs (the value of EF for Cr exceeded 5) indicate a moderately high enrichment of this element. Results of the analysis of the Igeo values indicate that the tested sediments are characterized by moderately high (2<Igeo<3) or high (3<Igeo<4) pollution. The differences in individual enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index values may result in the nature of heavy metals, their pollution loads, as well as speciation forms of trace elements occurrence in sediment-water complex. These ﬁndings indicate that the integration of geochemical methods is necessary for an appropriate ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in bottom sediments.