One of the most effective designs to control the road traffic noise is the T-shaped barrier. The aim of this study was to examine the performance of T-shape noise barriers covered with oblique diffusers using boundary element method. A 2D simulation technique based on the boundary element method (BEM) was used to compute the insertion loss at the center frequency of each one-third octave band. In designed barriers, the top surface of the T-shaped noise barriers was covered with oblique diffusers. The width and height of the barrier stem and the width of its cap were 0.3, 2.7, and 1 m, respectively. Angles of he oblique diffusers were 15, 30, and 45 degrees. The oblique diffusers were placed on the top surface with two designs including same oblique diffusers (SOD) and quadratic residue oblique diffusers (QROD). Barriers considered were made of concrete, an acoustically rigid material. The barrier with characteristics of QROD, forward direction, and sequence of angles (15, 30, and 45 degrees) had the greatest value of the overall A-weighted insertion loss equal to 18.3 to 21.8 dBA at a distance of 20 m with various heights of 0 to 6 m.
In this study, the effect of six commercial biocontrol strains, Bacillus pumilus INR7, B. megaterium P2, B. subtilis GB03, B. subtilis S, B. subtilis AS and B. subtilis BS and four indigenous strains Achromobacter sp. B124, Pseudomonas geniculate B19, Serratia marcescens B29 and B. simplex B21 and two plant defense inducers, methyl salicylate (Me-SA) and methyl jasmonate (Me-JA) were assessed on suppression of wheat take-all disease. Treatments were applied either as soil drench or sprayed on shoots. In the soil drench method, the highest disease suppression was achieved in treatment with strains INR7, GB03, B19 and AS along with two chemical inducers. Bacillus subtilis S, as the worst treatment, suppressed take-all severity up to 56%. Both chemical inducers and bacterial strains AS and P2 exhibited the highest effect on suppression of take-all disease in the shoot spray method. Bacillus subtilis S suppressed the disease severity up to 49% and was again the worst strain. The efficacy of strains GB03 and B19 decreased significantly in the shoot spray method compared to the soil drench application method. Our results showed that most treatments had the same effect on take-all disease when they were applied as soil drench or sprayed on aerial parts. This means that induction of plant defense was the main mechanism in suppressing take-all disease by the given rhizobacteria. It also revealed that plant growth was reduced when it was treated with chemical inducers. In contrast, rhizobacteria not only suppressed the disease, but also increased plant growth.
If we want to provide the efficient training intervention to increase the duration of using hearing protection devices (HPDs) by workers, we need a tool that can estimate the person’s hearing threshold taking into account noise exposure level, age, and work history, and compare them with audiometry to find out the percent reduction of workers hearing loss. First, the workers noise exposure level was determined according to ISO 9612, then 4000 Hz audiometry was done to find age and work history. On basis of ISO 1999 the hearing threshold was estimated and if the hearing protection device was not used continuously and correctly, the hearing protection device’s actual performance was reduced adjusted with person’s audiometry. After training intervention, the estimate was done again and was compared with the adjusted audiometry. According to ISO 1999 standard estimation results, the percent reduction of the workers hearing loss level was 6.48 dB in intervention group. This level remained unchanged in control group. The mean score of hearing threshold estimation (standard ISO 1999) was statistically more significant than mean score of hearing threshold (p-value ¡ 0.001). The results show not significant change in control group due to lack of changing of noise exposure level. In regards to the results of hearing threshold estimation based on ISO 1999 and comparing with workers audiometry, it can be seen that BASNEF training intervention increases the duration of using the HPDs and it could be effective in reducing hearing threshold related to noise.
The present study was aimed to investigate oxidative stress, DNA damage, and histopatholog- ical alterations in hepatic tissues of splenectomized Wistar rats experimentally infected with Ba- besia bigemina. Rats were challenged with 5x106 infected erythrocytes. Babesia infection was con- firmed both with Giemsa’s staining blood smears and nested-PCR amplified region of apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) gene. Parasitemia reached approximately 10 % at day 5 post-in- fection. Livers of infected rats were enlarged and darker in color, became extremely brittle with marked congestion. Microscopic evaluation showed cytoplasmic clearing of hepatocytes and se- vere hydropic changes with significantly dilated sinusoids containing macrophages and also intra- sinosoidal parasitized erythrocytes. Severe infiltration of lymphoplasma cells was also present throughout the liver parenchyma. Furthermore, Kupffer cells were enlarged and, occasionally, containing Babesia-parasitized erythrocytes. The activity of Glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were also significantly decreased (p < 0.05) after infection of rats with B. bigemina. B. bigemina infection also induced a significant increase (p < 0.05) in hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide-derived products (NOx) concentra- tions as well as amount of endogenous hepatocytes DNA damage. Hepatic damage was also re- flected through the measurement of lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) and protein carbonyl con- tent (PCO) in liver cells. These two indices of liver injury were also significantly elevated (p < 0.5) during B. bigemina infection. Evaluation of correlation between assayed variables in infected rats revealed that MDA levels were positively correlated with PCO, NOx, LDH and DNA damage in the infected group and negatively correlated with GSH, CAT and TAC. There was also an inverse relationship between the antioxidant enzymes activities of GSH, CAT and TAC with PCO, NOx and DNA damage in infected rats. However, NOx showed positive correlation with PCO and DNA damage in infected rats. On the basis of the above results it can be concluded that the Ba- besia infection increases oxidative stress markers, protein carbonyl content and DNA damage and decreases antioxidant enzymes activities in the liver. These results suggest that B. bigemina infec- tion could alter the liver histopathology and causes DNA damage following oxidative stress in hepatic tissue. Further studies are needed to precisely define how hepatic tissue damage takes place in B. bigemina infection.
The present study aimed to determine the role of job components and individual parameters on the raised blood pressure among male workers of textile industry who were exposed to continuous high noise level. Information of all eligible subjects including demographic and individual characteristics, medical history and job characteristics were obtained by direct interview and referring to the medical records. All blood pressure measurements were done using mercury sphygmomanometer in the morning before work. The 8-hours equivalent A-weighted sound pressure level, the level of blood cholesterol and triglyceride, and noise annoyance was determined for each worker. As the result of weighted regression in path analysis (direct effect), only the work shift did not have a significant effect on blood pressure among the studied variables. It can be seen that variables including the level of triglyceride, cholesterol, and noise exposure have the most direct effects on blood pressure. The results of total effects showed that variables, including using the hearing protection device, age, work experience and visibility of sound source, did not have a significant effect on blood pressure. The results of this study indicate that occupational noise exposure alone and combined with other job components and individual parameters is associated with raised blood pressure. However, noise exposure was probably a stronger stressor for increased blood pressure.