Nauki Techniczne

Polityka Energetyczna - Energy Policy Journal

Zawartość

Polityka Energetyczna - Energy Policy Journal | 2020 | vol. 23 | No 2 |

Abstrakt

The European Union aspires to pursue an ambitious climate policy. The energy sector is a key tool to ensure success in this area. At the same time, excessively ambitious targets can be a serious problem for individual member states. The aim of the article is to analyze the possibilities available to the Polish energy sector in the context of the assumed EU climate neutrality goals by 2050.

The analyzed research problem concerns, in particular, two areas of strategic importance for Poland: the coal sector and the renewable energy sources sector. The role of the former should be significantly reduced in the coming decades, while the position of the latter should be substantially strengthened. The juxtaposition of these challenges with the Polish economic, social and techno- logical realities is the main subject of analysis in this text. The method of system analysis with elements of a decision-making approach will be used. This will allow for an effective analysis and review at the research level of the most important problems and challenges faced by Poland in light of the necessary adjustments to be made in order to achieve the priorities assumed by the European Union.

The hypothesis of the article is that Poland is able to effectively meet European climate targets, although the implementation of this challenge requires decisive action on the part of the government, as well as an adequate response from investors and society. To this end, appropriate actions must be undertaken at both a strategic and operational level.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Krzysztof Tomaszewski

Abstrakt

The constant increase in the popularity of renewable energy systems allows residential building users to apply solutions leading to the diversification of the energy supply. The use of RES systems in residential buildings not only contributes to a higher level of environmental care, but also significantly and measurably improves the energy efficiency of the facility. Using hybrid systems allows the supply to be reduced or eliminated from conventional energy sources. The article presents common layouts of renewable energy systems, which are successfully used in residential buildings. It also shows the impact of such systems on the amount of savings achieved in the use of energy from external or conventional sources. In residential buildings, the possibility of energy generation in the form of electricity and heat is dependent on many factors that determine the type and size of the systems used to obtain energy from renewable sources. We should assume the further and continuous development of RES, which will increase the share of electricity and heat produced in households. Technological development, decreasing prices of equipment and components used for the installation of green electricity generation systems will be a conducive factor for increasing the popularity of RES systems, not only for residential buildings but also for other types of buildings. The article also points out the economic aspect of the RES systems application. It presents the positive impact of RES installations on the environment and estimates the average time of financial reimbursement. The economic analysis concerns individual systems of renewable energy systems used in residential buildings.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Sławomir Sowa

Abstrakt

The subject of this article concerns the growing issue of implementing the concept of social responsibility in the activities of integrated energy entities. This work includes the performance of a budgetary analysis of the national leading company, in terms of expenses associated with corporate social responsibility (CSR). The article presents the analysis of source literature, as well as identifies stakeholder activities. The introduction includes an explanation of the concept of CSR, its global approach along with the justification for the need to implement the concept of CSR in the strategy of industry entities. The following were used, among others, to perform the research: elements of financial and non-financial reporting, i.e. reports of a vertically integrated energy company – Capital Group Polska Grupa Energetyczna SA, over the years 2013–2017. The data obtained from distributed sources were used. The company’s activities in social and environmental directions were identified, and the stakeholder groups of these initiatives were determined. The main purpose of this article was to estimate the level of expenditure associated with CSR in the context of the company’s general budget. The article emphasizes the role of the PGE Foundation as a recognizable point of company activity in the scope of CSR (the participation of individual group companies in financing the foundation was presented). The analysis of CSR expenditure included: the amount of taxes paid, costs of employee benefits and assets of the social services fund, and environmental costs.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Justyna Woźniak
Justyna Szewczak

Abstrakt

The agrarian process includes many industrial phenomena and events. The goal of economics as a science is to precisely detect and describe the relationships between various market mechanisms. These phenomena can be presented as the desire “to describe reality in terms of systems, their components and relationships, both between components of the system and between different systems” (Jankowski 1997). The energy sector is a special field among many areas of the national economy, and the products of this sector have a major impact on the branches of the economy and the mechanisms of action occurring in them. The publication is devoted to the construction of a mathematical model used to support the energy policy of local government units. The aim of the study is to build a mathematical model of energy production, taking the development potential of renewable energy into account, as well as to propose the desired direction of energy policy development in the analyzed periods to the regional authorities and to offer a model for creating an energy policy in other local government units: poviats, communes. Until now, few authors have comprehensively dealt with this issue. To date, no detailed research has been published on issues related to renewable energy development and the use of mathematical methods in the construction of the energy production model in local government units. The undertaken research is a contribution to the development of knowledge about alternative energy sources in the energy margin.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Marcin Rabe

Abstrakt

The article present results of economic efficiency evaluation of storage technology for electricity from coal power plants in large-scale chemical batteries. The benefits of using a chemical lithium-ion battery in a public power plant based on hard coal were determined on the basis of data for 2018 concerning the mining process. The analysis included the potential effects of using a 400 MWh battery to optimize the operation of 350 MW power units in a coal power plant. The research team estimated financial benefits resulting from the reduction of peak loads and the work of individual power units in the optimal load range. The calculations included benefits resulting from the reduction of fuel consumption (coal and heavy fuel oil – mazout) as well as from the reduction of expenses on CO2 emission allowances.

The evaluation of the economic efficiency was enabled by a model created to calculate the NPV and IRR ratios. The research also included a sensitivity analysis which took identified risk factors associated with changes in the calculation assumptions adopted in the analysis into account. The evaluation showed that the use of large-scale chemical batteries to optimize the operation of power units of the subject coal power plant is profitable. A conducted sensitivity analysis of the economic efficiency showed that the efficiency of the battery and the costs of its construction have the greatest impact on the economic efficiency of the technology of producing electricity in a coal power plant with the use of a chemical battery. Other variables affecting the result of economic efficiency are the factors related to battery durability and fuels: battery life cycle, prices of fuels, prices of CO2 emission allowances and decrease of the battery capacity during its lifetime.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Piotr Krawczyk
Anna Śliwińska
Mariusz Ćwięczek

Abstrakt

The analysis of a solar installation operation was conducted on the example of a detached house in the Lesser Poland province in Poland. A gas boiler and three flat-plate collectors are located inside the house, which are used for heating water in the hot water tank with a volume of 220 dm3. The installation was established in 2012. The heat measured system (for solar gains) was added in 2014. In 2015–2019 solar heat gains measured per area of absorber were higher than 340 kWh/m2. During a two-week period in June 2015, the insolation on the horizontal plane and the temperature were measured in 4 different points of the hot water tank. On this basis, heat losses from the storage tank were determined, i.e. a decrease in temperature during periods with and without the consumption of hot water by the residents. During this period, a temperature higher than 80°C was observed several times in the hot water tank. In two parts of the hot water tank, rhe determined temperature decreases were used to obtain the heat loss amount. In the analyzed period (2 weeks), 9 days were observed with solar heat gains higher than 9 kWh/day. For these days, the value of heat loss from the solar hot water tank was estimated at over 6 kWh/day. This data corresponds to the actual heat demand for hot water preparation in the building at 7.3 kWh/day. The correlation between daily solar heat gains and solar hot water tank heat losses were also determined. In addition, based on the amount of heat losses, the value of the tank loss coefficient was estimated. The obtained value was compared with the manufacturer’s data and reference data.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Piotr Olczak

Abstrakt

About 55% of over 14 million Polish households live in multi-family buildings. Cooperative or housing association buildings have a large share in this group. The heat is supplied from the district heating network or from local sources. With respect to facilities fed from gas boiler rooms, the signing and execution of fuel supply contracts is required. From October 1, 2017, the obligation to submit tariffs for gas trading set for all final customers (except for individual gas consumers in households) for approval to the President of the Energy Regulatory Office was lifted. Decisions regarding the choice of the supplier and the content of the concluded contract are made by the authorized bodies of the cooperative or housing association. The consequences of such decisions are borne by the owners and users of residential premises. Ensuring the continuity of a contract for the supply of gaseous fuel essentially comes down to establishing prices and rates in force for a given period. The right decision on the moment of signing the contract or the amendment, termination of the existing contract and signing a new one, or negotiation efficiency will result in financial profits for all users. The costs of heating and domestic hot water preparation are a significant component of the overall cost of the maintenance of flats in Poland. Therefore, it is even more important that the prices and rates agreed upon with the gas supplier are as favorable as possible to users. The high costs of heat are not only expenses for apartment owners. The attractiveness of flat on the rental market is also decreasing. The business activity carried out in facilities located in such buildings is also less competitive.

The authors of the article analyzed gas prices on the Polish market over the last 3 years and presented the results of simulations of the effects of specific prices and rates set in the contract for the supply of fuel at the cost of heating from the point of view of a single apartment. As these are not large amounts per year, they do not motivate to optimize the terms of the gas purchase contract in this respect. The dynamics of changes in gas prices in Poland, although slightly different from world trends, is high. This makes it difficult for those responsible to make the decisions, and for residential users, it often means spending differences in subsequent years. One of the consequences of setting prices and rates significantly higher than obtainable may also be the reluctance of local communities to take measures to increase the energy efficiency of the heat supply system. From the point of view of heating costs, such decisions may distort the economic effect of thermo-modernization.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Grzegorz Bartnicki
Bogdan Nowak

Abstrakt

There are many financial ways to intensify the construction of new renewable energy sources installations, among others: feed in tariff, grants. An example of photovoltaic grant support in Poland is the “Mój Prąd” [My Electricity] program created in 2019. This program, with a budget of PLN 1 billion, is intended for households in which installations with a capacity range of 2–10 kWp have been installed. During its first edition 27,187 application were submitted. Over 98% of installations cost less than PLN 6,000/kWp. The total installed capacity is 151.3 MWp, which gives the average amount of co-funding per unit of power at the level of PLN 884.7/kWp. The average power of the installation on the national scale is 5.57 kWp, the indicator per 1000 inhabitants is 3.94 kWp, and per unit of area is 0.484 kWp/km2. These installations will produce around 143.5 GWh of electricity annually, contributing to the reduction of CO2 emissions by approximately 109,800 Mg per year. Most applications came from the Silesian Province (3855), which translated into the largest installed capacity of 21.82 MWp, as well as 4.81 kWp/1000 inhabitants and 1.77 kWp/km2 (over 3 times higher than the average in Poland). The installed capacity in the individual province was closely correlated with the population of the province (correlation coefficient – 0.95), while the installed capacity indicator per 1,000 inhabitants with insolation (0.80). The highest power ratio per 1000 inhabitants was achieved in the Podkarpackie Province and amounted to 5.05, and the lowest in the West Pomeranian Province (2.41).

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Piotr Olczak
Dominika Matuszewska
Dominik Kryzia

Abstrakt

The dynamics of economic development determines the need to develop technologies for waste recycling especially the acquisition of condensed fuels for the needs of the local diversification of energy sources. In a short time, Poland will probably lack its own produced electricity. To apply the process of diversification of energy sources, by developing methods of generating energy from waste, it becomes crucial to protect the environment. The use of cogeneration technology based on fuels derived from waste, in particular concentrated oil and gas fuels, is becoming more common and provides the basis for securing the energy supply in the preferred diversification process. Plastic waste processing in the controlled depolymerization process, which is the reverse of the polymerization process for hydrocarbon recovery – uses petroleum derivatives its production. At present, the greatest interest arises in the material recovery of plastics and rubber in the process of anaerobic thermal decomposition (thermolysis/pyrolysis), which is used on an industrial scale and consists in the degradation of polymer bonds into low molecular weight. The imperative of a modern economy is to obtain energy from fuels from waste treatment, including hazardous waste, preferably in the cogeneration process. The fuel obtained from waste may be used to obtain thermal or electric energy in order to diversify energy sources. The article presents innovative Polish technologies of obtaining fuel in processes of anaerobic thermal decomposition mainly of elastomeric and polymeric waste (including hazardous ones) for direct application in power generators of various power.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Artur Gołowicz
Andrzej Wojciechowski

Redakcja

Kolegium redakcyjne
  • Redaktor naczelny: Eugeniusz Mokrzycki
  • Z-ca redaktora naczelnego: Lidia Gawlik
  • Redaktor tematyczny: Wykorzystanie surowców energetycznych
  • Sekretarz redakcji: Katarzyna Stala-Szlugaj
  • Redaktor tematyczny: Paliwa i energia
  • Z-ca sekretarza redakcji: Jacek Kamiński
  • Redaktor tematyczny: Energetyka
  • Redaktor statystyczny: Jacek Mucha
Rada redakcyjna
  • Prof. Rolf Bracke – International Geothermal Centre Hochschule, Bochum, Niemcy
  • Prof. Tadeusz Chmielniak – Politechnika Śląska, Gliwice, Polska
  • Prof. Mariusz Filipowicz – Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza, Kraków, Polska
  • Prof. Anatoliy Goncharuk – International Humanitarian University, Odessa, Ukraina
  • Prof. Ernst Huenges – GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Poczdam, Niemcy
  • Prof. Louis Jestin – University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, RPA
  • Dr Gudni Johannesson – Orkustofnun-Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik, Islandia
  • Prof. Jacek Marecki – Politechnika Gdańska, Gdańsk, Polska
  • Dr Nuria G. Rabanal – Universidad de Leon, Leon, Hiszpania
  • Prof. Jakub Siemek – Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza, Kraków, Polska
  • Dr Jan Soliński – Polski Komitet Światowej Rady Energetycznej, Warszawa, Polska
  • Prof. Namejs Zeltins – Institute of Physical Energetics, Ryga, Łotwa
Komitet wydawniczy
  • Emilia Rydzewska – redaktor językowy (polski)
  • Michelle Atallah – redaktor językowy (angielski)
  • Beata Stankiewicz – redaktor techniczny

Kontakt

Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia Polskiej Akademii Nauk
ul. J. Wybickiego 7, 31-261 Kraków
tel.: +48 12 6323300, faks: +48 12 6323524
e-mail: polene@min-pan.krakow.pl
https://min-pan.krakow.pl

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