Swing-up control of a single pendulum from the pendant to the upright position is ﬁrstly surveyed. The control laws are comparatively studied based on swing-up time from a given initial state to the upright position. The State Dependent Riccati Equation is found eﬀective for designing the swing-up control law under saturating control input. The control law is extended to a linear combination of sine function of the angle and the angular velocity, and a variable structure control with a sliding mode given by the linear combination. Making the swing-up time correspond to a colour, which is similar to the Fractal analysis, colour maps of the swing-up time for given control parameters and initial conditions yield interesting Fractal-like ﬁgures.

}, type={Artykuły / Articles}, title={Swing-up time analysis of pendulum}, volume={vol. 52}, number={No 3}, pages={153-163}, journal={Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences}, keywords={pendulum control, state dependent Riccati equation, nonlinear control, artiﬁcial gravity, fractal}, }