Applied sciences

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences


Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences | 2006 | vol. 54 | No 4 |


There were two aims of the research. One was to enable more or less automatic confirmation of the known associations – either quantitative or qualitative – between technological data and selected properties of concrete materials. Even more important is the second aim – demonstration of expected possibility of automatic identification of new such relationships, not yet recognized by civil engineers. The relationships are to be obtained by methods of Artificial Intelligence, (AI), and are to be based on actual results from experiments on concrete materials. The reason of applying the AI tools is that in Civil Engineering the real data are typically non perfect, complex, fuzzy, often with missing details, which means that their analysis in a traditional way, by building empirical models, is hardly possible or at least can not be done quickly. The main idea of the proposed approach was to combine application of different AI methods in a one system, aimed at estimation, prediction, design and/or optimization of composite materials. The paradigm of the approach is that the unknown rules concerning the properties of concrete are hidden in experimental results and can be obtained from the analysis of examples. Different AI techniques like artificial neural networks, machine learning and certain techniques related to statistics were applied. The data for the analysis originated from direct observations and from reports and publications on concrete technology. Among others it has been demonstrated that by combining different AI methods it is possible to improve the quality of the data, (e.g. when encountering outliers and missing values or in clustering problems), so that the whole data processing system will be giving better prediction, (when applying ANNs), or the newly discovered rules will be more effective, (e.g. with descriptions more complete and – at the same time – possibly more consistent, in case of ML algorithms).

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The paper deals with a composite element in which the matrix is reinforced with two families of parallel continuous fibres inclined to the x1 axis at the angles n1 and n2. The stress and strain states were determined in an element subjected to normal and tangential loads. The problem of two-criteria optimization is considered. Minimum strain energy and minimum cost of composite element were chosen as criteria. The strain energy is determined with respect to the system of principal axes of stress. Three independent variables: the angle directing the first family of fibres, the angle between two families and volume fraction of fibres are selected as the design variables. Examining particular load cases in composites made with epoxy resin reinforced with carbon fibres elements and in high performance fibre reinforced cementitious composite elements, optimum solutions have been determined in the sense of assumed criteria.

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An automated method for crack identification and quantitative description of crack systems in concrete was developed in order to aid a service life assessment of concrete elements in structures. Flat polished specimens for crack analysis were impregnated with epoxy resin containing fluorescent dye. The examination of the crack system was performed in ultraviolet light using a stereomicroscope and an Image Pro Plus image analysis system on specimens cored out of several concrete structures. The laboratory tests were performed on cast specimens to establish correlations between water penetration and chloride diffusion and crack system parameters. The analysis of cracks in concrete cores taken from structures resulted in interesting conclusions based on the crack width distribution and crack localization with respect to steel reinforcement. The method was found very effective to support standard concrete diagnostics methods.

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The paper deals with a non-linear problem of long water waves approaching a sloping beach. In order to describe the phenomenon we apply the Lagrange’s system of material variables. With these variables it is much easier to solve boundary conditions, especially conditions on a shoreline. The formulation is based on the fundamental assumption for long waves propagating in shallow water of constant depth that vertical material lines of fluid particles remain vertical during entire motion of the fluid. The analysis is confined to one – dimensional case of unsteady water motion within a ’triangular’ body of fluid. The partial differential equations of fluid motion, obtained by means of a variational procedure, are then substituted by a system of equations resulting from a perturbation scheme with the second order expansion with respect to a small parameter. In this way the original problem has been reduced to a system of linear partial differential equations with variable coefficients. The latter equations are, in turn, substituted by a system of difference equations, which are then integrated in a discrete time space by means of the Wilson-µ method. The procedure developed in this paper may be a convenient tool in analysing non-breaking waves propagating in coastal zones of seas. Moreover, the model can also deliver useful results for cases when breaking of waves near a shoreline may be expected.

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Selected results of investigations concerning a shallow water part of the coastal zone, covering the surf zone and the swash zone, are presented. The above research has been carried out by means of field measurements, as well as data-driven and theoretical modelling. The investigations have led to development of a mathematical model of wave transformation and run-up on the shore in the Lagrangian system, as well as identification of infragravity waves (edge waves) in the multi-bar morphological beach system and their linkage with rhythmic shoreline forms (cusps). Some empirical relationships have been obtained for the description of number of bars in a bar system and dissipation of wave energy over such morphological structure. The experimental findings are based on field studies carried out at the IBW PAN Coastal Research Station (CRS) in Lubiatowo.

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The paper presents an estimation of liquefaction susceptibility of some soils from the coast of the Marmara Sea, which was heavily

striken by the Kocaeli earthquake in 1999. Firstly, the results of field investigations are summarized. Then, the results of laboratory investigations of physical and mechanical properties of the soils collated from the sites investigated are presented. The mechanical properties relate to the compaction/liquefaction model of saturated soils. This model is briefly outlined, then respective experimental procedures dealing with its calibration described, and values of material parameters listed. Liquefaction potential of investigated soils is analysed using standard procedures, based on the grain size distribution curves and SPTs. Finally, the simulation of pore-pressure generation and onset of liquefaction of Turkish soils is carried out, using the compaction/liquefaction model. Discussion of some standard empirical procedures of estimation of liquefaction potential of saturated soils, conducted from the analytical point of view, is also presented.

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An axially symmetric, gravity driven, steady flow of a grounded polar ice sheet with a prescribed temperature field is considered.

The ice is treated as an incompressible, non-linearly viscous, anisotropic fluid, the internal structure (fabric) of which evolves as ice descends from the free surface to depth in an ice sheet. The evolution of the ice fabric is described by an orthotropic constitutive law which relates the deviatoric stress to the strain-rate, strain, and three structure tensors based on the current (rotating) principal stretch axes. The solution of the problem is constructed as a leading-order approximation derived from asymptotic expansions in a small parameter that reflects the small ratio of stress and velocity gradients in the lateral direction of the ice sheet to those in the thickness direction. Numerical simulations of the flow problem have been carried out for various sets of rheological parameters defining the limit strength of the anisotropic fabric in ice. The results of calculations illustrate the influence of the ice anisotropy, basal melt conditions and temperature field in ice on the glacier thickness and lateral span, and on the depth profiles of the flow velocity.

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In the paper an approach to design of multipurpose control systems is considered. It is presented an universal and efficient algorithm for synthesis of multipurpose control system for proper, invertible and right-invertible multi-input multi-output dynamic (MIMO) plants which can be both unstable and/or non-minimumphase. The developed control systems feature both dynamic (either block or row-by-row) decoupling and arbitrary closed-loop pole placement and zero steady-state errors for regulation or tracking processes in presence of (non-diminishing) disturbances.

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In the paper an application of evolutionary algorithm to design and optimization of combinational digital circuits with respect to transistor count is presented. Multiple layer chromosomes increasing the algorithm efficiency are introduced. Four combinational circuits with truth tables chosen from literature are designed using proposed method. Obtained results are in many cases better than those obtained using other methods.

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A simple analog circuit is presented which can play a neuron role in static-model-based neural networks implemented in the form of an integrated circuit. Operating in a transresistance mode it is suited to cooperate with transconductance synapses. As a result, its input signal is a current which is a sum of currents coming from the synapses. Summation of the currents is realized in a node at the neuron input. The circuit has two outputs and provides a step function signal at one output and a linear function one at the other. Activation threshold of the step output can be conveniently controlled by means of a voltage. Having two outputs, the neuron is attractive to be used in networks taking advantage of fuzzy logic. It is built of only five MOS transistors, can operate with very low supply voltages, consumes a very low power when processing the input signals, and no power in the absence of input signals. Simulation as well as experimental results are shown to be in a good agreement with theoretical predictions. The presented results concern a 0.35 1m CMOS process and a prototype fabricated in the framework of Europractice.

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In the paper there has been made an advantage of the non-classical operational calculus to determination of the response of the certain discrete time-systems. The Z-transform is often used to analysis of the stationary discrete time-systems. However, the use of the Z-transform to determination of the response especially of the non-stationary discrete time-systems is doubtful or may cause complications. This method leads to differential equations of n-th order of variable coefficients, whose solutions are very difficult or impossible. The non-classical operational calculus can be used to analysis both of the stationary and non-stationary discrete time-systems. The presented method with the use of the Heaviside operator soon leads to the target without unnecessary differential equations.

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In the paper a new method, called the Noise Scattering Pattern (NSP) method, for RTS noise identification in a noise signal is presented. Examples of patterns of the NSP method are included.

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In this work studies of barrier height local values are presented. Distribution of the gate-oxide EBG(x, y) and semiconductor-oxide EBS(x, y) barrier height local values have been determined using the photoelectric measurement methods. Two methods were used to obtain the local values of the barrier heights: modified Powell-Berglund method and modified Fowler method. Both methods were modified in such a way as to allow determination of the EBG(x, y) and EBS(x, y) distribution over the gate area using a focused UV light beam of a small diameter d = 0.3 mm. Measurements have been made on a series of Al-SiO2-Si(n+) MOS structures with semitransparent (tAl = 35 nm) square aluminum gate (1 x 1 mm2). It has been found that the EBG(x, y) distribution has a characteristic dome-like shape, with highest values at the center of the gate, lower at the gate edges and still lower at gate corners. On the contrary, the EBS(x, y) distribution is of a random character. Also, in this paper, both barrier height measurements have been compared with the photoelectric effective contact potential difference fMS(x, y) measurements. These results show good agreement between distribution of the barrier heights EBG(x, y) and EBS(x, y) measurements and independently determined shape of the effective contact potential difference fMS(x, y) distribution.

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In this paper the capacity of non-uniform sampling rate conversion techniques, involving different interpolation methods, aimed at wow defect reduction, is examined. Involved are: linear interpolation, four polynomial-based interpolation methods and the windowed sincbased method. The examined polynomial methods are: Lagrange interpolation, polynomial fitting with additional noise reduction, Hermitan and Spline. The performance of an artificially distorted audio signal, restored using non-uniform resampling, is evaluated on the basis of standard audio defect measurement criteria and compared for all of the aforementioned interpolation methods. The chosen defect descriptors are: total harmonic distortion, total harmonic distortion plus noise and signal to noise ratio.

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The paper concerns the problem of state assignment for finite state machines (FSM), targeting at PAL-based CPLDs implementations. Presented in the paper approach is dedicated to state encoding of fast automata. The main idea is to determine the number of logic levels of the transition function before the state encoding process, and keep the constraints during the process. The number of implicants of every single transition function must be known while assigning states, so elements of two level minimization based on Primary and Secondary Merging Conditions are implemented in the algorithm. The method is based on code length extraction if necessary. In one of the most basic stages of the logic synthesis of sequential devices, the elements referring to constraints of PAL-based CPLDs are taken into account.

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The paper presents modification of the method dedicated to a complex area decomposition of a set of logic functions whereas the

altered method is dedicated to implement the considered logic circuits within FPGA structures. The authors attempted to reach solutions where the number of configurable logic blocks and the number of structural layer would be reasonably balanced on the basis of the minimization principle. The main advantage of the procedure when the decomposition is carried out directly on the BDD diagram is the opportunity of immediate checking whether the decomposed areas of the diagram do not exceed the resources of logic blocks incorporated into the integrated circuits that are used for implementation of the logic functions involved.

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In this paper a new pitch shifter using a complex instantaneous frequency rescaler and direct digital synthesizer is presented aimed at an application in a handset calling signal composer. The pitch shifter introduced here exhibits an excellent performance as a generator of different melodies, where the sound of each note in a melody, e.g., imitating a popular hit, is derived from a short recording of a voice of a chosen creature via complex dynamic representation processing.

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Editorial office


T. Kaczorek, Warsaw University of Technology

Deputy Editor-in Chief:

M. Kaźmierkowski, Warsaw University of Technology

A. Rogalski, Division IV Technical Sciences PAN

Board of Co-editors:

Artificial and Computational Intelligence

S. Osowski and B. Sawicki, Warsaw University of Technology

Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology

A. Liebert and R. Maniewski, Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering PAN

Civil Engineering

L. Czarnecki, Building Research Institute, ITB, Warsaw

Control, Robotics and Informatics

J. Klamka and A. Babiarz, Silesian Technical University

A. Borkowski, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics

M. Mrozowski and A. Lamęcki, Gdansk University of Technology

W. Woliński, Warsaw University of Technology

Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics

A. Styczek and A. Tylikowski, Warsaw University of Technology

Materials Science and Nanotechnology

B. Major and P. Czaja, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAN

T.A. Kowalewski and B. Blachowski, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

Power Systems and Power Electronics

M.P. Kazmierkowski, Warsaw University of Technology

International Editorial Advisory Board

I.V. Alexandrov, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Russia

R. Asthana, University of Wiscontin-Stout, Menomonie, USA

Xu Binshi, China Association of Plant Engineering, Beijing, P.R. China

F. Blaabjerg, Aalborg University, Denmark

C. Cecati, University of L’Aquila, Italy

A. Cichocki, RIKEN Institute, Tokyo, Japan

M. David, National Polytechnique de Toulouse, France

R. Ebner, Materials Centre Leoben, Leoben, Austria

E. Fornasini, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

L.G. Franquelo, University of Sevilla, Spain

M. Gad-el-Hak, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA

D. van Gemert, Catholic University Leuven, KU Leuven, Belgium

L. Keviczky, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary

V. Kučera, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

R. Kennel, Technical University Munich, Germany

E. Levi, Liverpool John Moore University, UK

G. Maier, Technical University of Milan, Milan, Italy

K.F. Man, City University of Hong Kong,

H.A. Mang, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria

H. Mihashi, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan

S. Mindess, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

D.A. Mlynski, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany

A.S. Nowak, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA

K. Ohnishi, Keio University, Yokohama, Japan

A. Öberg, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

W. Pedrycz, University of Alberta, Canada

S. Przemieniecki, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA

M. Razeghi, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA

J. Rodriguez, Technical University of Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso, Chile

J.V. Sloten, Catholic University Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

B.M. Wilamowski, University of Auburn, Alabama, USA

W. Włosiński, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

A.L. Yarin, Institute of Illinois at Chicago, USA

Du Xiangwan, Chinese Academy of Engineering, China

J. Żurada, Department of Computer Engineering, University of Louisville, USA


Editorial Office:

Pałac Kultury i Nauki

Wydział IV Nauk Technicznych PAN

Pl. Defilad 1

PL 00-901 Warszawa

Mrs Ewa Trojanowska

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors

About the Journal

The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published by the Division IV: Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The journal is peer‐reviewed and is published both in printed and electronic form ( It is established for the publication of original high quality papers from multidisciplinary Engineering sciences with the following topics preferred:

• Artificial and Computational Intelligence,

• Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology,

• Civil Engineering,

• Control, Informatics and Robotics,

• Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics,

• Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics,

• Material Science and Nanotechnology,

• Power Systems and Power Electronics.

General data:

Format of the journal – A4 printed and electronic form,

Paper type – offset

Colourfulness – full colour at an extra charge,

The volume of the journal – 200 pages (ca 20 papers) + 4 cover pages,

Frequency of publication – bimonthly,

ISSN: 0239-7528 (print version),

ISSN: 2300-1917 (on line version),

DOI: 10.2478/bpasts


Journal citation: Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech.

ISO: Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.-Tech. Sci.,


Acronym in the Editorial System: BPASTS

Journal Metrics:

JCR Impact Factor 2017: 1.361

5 Year Impact Factor 2017: 1.323

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.526

Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 1.208

Impact per Publication (IPP) 2015: 1.158

The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 2017: 25 points

Manuscript types:

Invited reviews presenting the state of the knowledge and/or devoted to novel topics,

• Refereed research papers reporting on original scientific or technological achievements,

• Refereed papers in special issues/sections serving as conference proceedings arranged by guest editors.

Special Section Policy

Proposals of original Special Sections within the scope of the Journal may be submitted to the Editorial Office. Special Section submission rules are described in detail at: Edytorial Systems

Guest Editor form needed for submitting a Special Section proposal: Edytorial systems

Manuscript Submission Policy

All manuscripts submitted for publication should be original. Manuscripts published or under consideration for publication elsewhere should not be submitted and will not be considered. Submission of a paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher.

However, manuscripts based on papers published at related conferences and workshops proceedings may be submitted for consideration provided that: (1) the papers are not identical (similarity index must be below 50%), (2) the authors cite their earlier conference paper on which this new work is based, (3) the journal publication includes clearly shown novel elements (e.g., more comprehensive experiments).

Manuscript submission for review

The Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech now employs a Web-based manuscript submission and peer-review tracking system called Editorial System. Authors must submit their manuscript electronically on the web:

From this entry page, access can be obtained to all information required for the submission of a manuscript. First‐time users must create an Author’s account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. All manuscripts receive individual identification codes that should be used in any correspondence with regard to the publication process. For the authors already registered in the Editorial System it is enough to enter their username and password to login as an author (Sign in).

Author(s) will be notified about registration and manuscript review process by e-mail.

The manuscripts must be uploaded as a single PDF file.

If you experience difficulties with the manuscript submission website, please contact the Copy Editor of the Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech (Anna Jurkiewicz: of authors and their affiliation should be removed from the manuscripts for the review process in order to have a fair evaluation of their manuscript. All authors of the manuscript are responsible for its content; they must have agreed to its publication and have given the corresponding author the authority to act on their behalf in all matters pertaining to publication. The Corresponding Author is responsible for informing the coauthors of the manuscript status throughout the submission, review, and production process. All submitted papers are checked using iThenticate plagiarism detection software.

Manuscript preparation

1. The manuscript should be written in clear and concise English.

2. For manuscript preparation please use the attached Word or LaTeX template.

3. Please remember that in the .pdf version of the manuscript for evaluation process author(s) name(s) and affiliation should be removed.

4. Authors should consult a recent issue of the journal for style if possible.

Manuscript decision and Proofs

Manuscript evaluations are assigned one of four outcomes: Accept, Minor Revisions, Major Revisions, and Reject. Manuscripts with "Minor Revision" do not require a second review. All manuscripts receiving a "Major Revision" evaluation must be subjected to a second review. Rejected manuscripts are given no further consideration. Normally, manuscripts that receive a "Major Revision" decision have only one additional chance for revision and the revised version should be uploaded to the Editorial System within six weeks. If the author(s) failed to make satisfactory changes, the manuscript is rejected. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit house style.

Transfer of Copyright Agreement

Once the paper is initially accepted, the authors are assumed to have transferred the copyright of the paper to the publisher. Please fill the attached Form, sign, and add to the final version of the manuscript as separate .pdf file.

It is also available on the webpage

Proofs will be sent to the author (first named author if no corresponding author is identified for multi-authored papers) and should be returned within 48 hours of receipt.

Fees for printing the article

The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published in Open Access, which means that all papers are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. By submitting a paper for publication, authors declare that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their paper. In exchange for a fee for printing, the PDF file of published paper is available at the Open Access platform:

National (foreign) authors:

• The flat fee of 1230 PLN (approximately 300 EUR) per paper

Exempt from the fee are:

• Authors of articles ordered by the Editorial Board (Invited papers)

50% discount for:

• Reviewers (who performed at least 5 reviews per year) – one paper per year

• Guest Editors (the discount is valid only within the special section guest-edited by the author)

Mandatory over-length charges of 200 PLN (approximately 50 EUR) per page

in case the paper exceeds

• 8 printed double-column pages for regular research papers,

• 8 printed double-column pages for Special issue/section papers,

• No limit for invited (review) papers.

In addition, each color page will be charged an additional fee according to the current cost of printing. Otherwise, the paper will be printed in black-white.

Information needed for Proforma Invoice

1. Author’s/Authors’ Last name(s), Name(s), e-mail

2. Title of the paper

3. Exact name of the payer (person / institution or other legal entity realizing the transfer)

4. Address of the payer

5. Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN, in Polish NIP) – only when paid by an institution or another legal entity!

Check list for final submission to the Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech (after review)

1. Is your manuscript up to date? Did you include references, which were published while your manuscript was being processed? It is expected that at least 20% of references are to journal papers published in the last two years. Authors are welcome to consider reference papers published in the Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech. In order to find the recent Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech. papers please visit Open Access platform:

2. Is your title adequate and is your abstract correctly written? In the age of electronic publications it is not easy to be noticed! Authors have to do everything possible so the paper will be seen and read. Therefore, very careful wording should be used in the title and in the abstract. Without a proper and interesting title and abstract a great paper might never be downloaded from the de Gruyter platform and read.

3. Does the manuscript clearly describe problem(s) and your accomplishments? Can your manuscript be shortened? Are there sentences or paragraphs that do not provide important information and can be eliminated?

4. Is the length of your manuscript adequate? Please notice that for long papers, you may face mandatory over length charges per page.

5. Please make sure that the fee for printing your manuscript is paid.

Open Access policy

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

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