Applied sciences

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences


Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences | 2007 | vol. 55 | No 1 |


Simple necessary and sufficient conditions for robust stability of the positive linear discrete-time systems with delays with linear uncertainty structure in two cases: 1) unity rank uncertainty structure, 2) non-negative perturbation matrices, are established. The proposed conditions are compared with the suitable conditions for the standard systems. The considerations are illustrated by numerical examples.

Go to article


The synthesis problem for optimal control systems in the class of discrete controls is under consideration. The problem is investigated by reducing to a linear programming (LP) problem with consequent use of a dynamic version of the adaptive method of LP. Both perfect and imperfect information on behavior of control system cases are studied. Algorithms for the optimal controller, optimal estimators are described. Results are illustrated by examples.

Go to article


A complete parametric approach is proposed for the design of the Luenberger type function Kx observers for descriptor linear systems. Based on a complete parametric solution to a class of generalized Sylvester matrix equations, parametric expressions for all the coefficient matrices of the observer are derived. The approach provides all the degrees of design freedom, which can be utilized to achieve some additional design requirements. An illustrative example shows the effect of the proposed approach.

Go to article


New tests (criterions) for checking the reachability and the observability of positive linear-discrete-time systems are proposed. The tests do not need checking of rank conditions of the reachability and observability matrices of the systems. Simple sufficient conditions for the unreachability and unobservability of the systems are also established.

Go to article


In the paper finite-dimensional stationary dynamical control systems described by linear stochastic ordinary differential state equations with single point delay in the control are considered. Using notations, theorems and methods taken directly from deterministic controllability problems, necessary and sufficient conditions for different kinds of stochastic relative controllability are formulated and proved. It will be proved that under suitable assumptions relative controllability of a deterministic linear associated dynamical system is equivalent to stochastic relative exact controllability and stochastic relative approximate controllability of the original linear stochastic dynamical system. Some remarks and comments on the existing results for stochastic controllability of linear dynamical systems with delays are also presented. Finally, minimum energy control problem for stochastic dynamical system is formulated and solved.

Go to article


The paper deals with the problems of designing observers and unknown input observers for discrete-time Lipschitz non-linear systems. In particular, with the use of the Lyapunov method, three different convergence criteria of the observer are developed. Based on the achieved results, three different design procedures are proposed. Then, it is shown how to extend the proposed approach to the systems with unknown inputs. The final part of the paper presents illustrative examples that confirm the effectiveness of the proposed techniques. The paper also presents a MATLAB® function that implements one of the design procedures.

Go to article


The paper presents the method for multicriteria design of a synchronous generator voltage regulator. The results of the voltage regulator polyoptimisation are compromise sets for a classic controller of type PI and fuzzy logic controller of type Takagi-Sugeno-Kang. A genetic algorithm is used to solve the polyoptimisation problem.

Go to article


The paper deals with linear circuits synthesis with periodic parameters. It was proved that the time-varying voltages and currents of inner branches of such circuits can be calculated using linear recursive equations with periodic coefficients if signals on port are given. The stability theorem of periodic solution was formulated. Hereby described the synthesis problems appear when compensation of power supply systems is considered.

Go to article


The paper concerns the two-machine non-preemptive flow shop scheduling problem with a total late work criterion

and a common due date (F2|dj = d|Y ). The late work performance measure estimates the quality of a solution with regard

to the duration of late parts of activities performed in the system, not taking into account the quantity of this delay. In the

paper, a few theorems are formulated and proven, describing features of an optimal solution for the problem mentioned, which is

NP-hard. These theorems can be used in exact exponential algorithms (as dominance relations reducing the number of solutions

enumerated explicitly), as well as in heuristic and metaheuristic methods (supporting the construction of sub-optimal schedules

of a good quality).

Go to article


The manufacture and consumption of market products show ever growing trends, and this means not only the supply and demand volume but also, to a higher and higher extent, searching for new products distinguishable from the variety of products on the market. Thus, it is necessary to find methods of functional, logical and structural combination of the so far existing engineering applications like CAx, RP/RT/RE, PDM/TDM, PPC/ERP, CE/SE and RDBMS techniques. A new challenge imposed on manufacturers by the competitive market is the so-called “product customization”, i.e. attending to an individual customer’s requirements in the features of a series manufactured product. The general objective of customisation is to elaborate features of a product, manufacturing processes, documentation and production organisation in such a way that the product’s individual features meet the customer’s requirements and its manufacturing process, price and service do not stray from series manufactured products.

Go to article


The paper contains a description of a multiscale algorithm based on the boundary element method (BEM) coupled with a discrete atomistic model. The atomic model uses empirical pair-wise potentials to describe interactions between atoms. The Newton-Raphson method is applied to solve a nanoscale model. The continuum domain is modelled by using BEM. The application of BEM reduces the total number of degrees of freedom in the multiscale model. Some numerical results of simulations

at the nanoscale are shown to examine the presented algorithm.

Go to article


This paper is an overview of the application potential and design challenges of micro air vehicles (MAVs), defined as small enough to be practical for a single-person transport and use. Four types of MAVs are considered: 1) fixed-wing, 2) rotarywing, 3) ornithopters (bird-like flapping) and 4) entomopters (insect-like flapping). In particular, advantages of a propeller-driven delta wing configuration for type 1 are discussed. Some detail is also given for type 4, the least understood of the four, including a new concept of manoeuvre control for such MAVs. The paper concludes with a brief prognostic of the future of each MAV type.

Go to article


The paper presents the application of the newly developed method of the solution of nonlinear equations to the adaptive modelling and computer simulation. The approach is suitable when the system of equations can be arranged in such a way that it consists of a large number of linear equations and a smaller number of nonlinear equations. This situation occurs in the case of adaptive modelling of mechanical systems using finite elements or finite differences techniques. In this case the classical least square method becomes very effective. The paper presents several examples of the application of the method. A solution to the, so called, “black box” problem is also presented.

Go to article


In the paper the thermal processes proceeding in the solidifying metal are analyzed. The basic energy equation determining the course of solidification contains the component (source function) controlling the phase change. This component is proportional to the solidification rate ¶ fS/¶ t (fS Î [0, 1], is a temporary and local volumetric fraction of solid state). The value of fS can be found, among others, on the basic of laws determining the nucleation and nuclei growth. This approach leads to the so called micro/macro models (the second generation models). The capacity of internal heat source appearing in the equation concerning the macro scale (solidification and cooling of domain considered) results from the phenomena proceeding in the micro scale (nuclei growth). The function fS can be defined as a product of nuclei density N and single grain volume V (a linear model of crystallization) and this approach is applied in the paper presented. The problem discussed consists in the simultaneous identification of two parameters determining a course of solidification. In particular it is assumed that nuclei density N (micro scale) and volumetric specific heat of metal (macro scale) are unknown. Formulated in this way inverse problem is solved using the least squares criterion and gradient methods. The additional information which allows to identify the unknown parameters results from knowledge of cooling curves at the selected set of points from solidifying metal domain. On the stage of numerical realization the boundary element method is used. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are presented.

Go to article


In the paper, a solution to the problem of elastic deformation of thin-walled shell structures with complex shapes within the theory of geometrically non-linear shells has been presented. It is a modification of the Newton-Raphson method. In a variational formulation, the problem is based on a Lagrange’s functional for increments of displacements. The method has been applied to investigations of a harmonic drive, in particular to analysis of the stress state in the flexspline with a variable curvature as well as bearings of the generator. For verification of the obtained results, a more adequate FEM model calculated by ANSYS has been used.

Go to article


Macroscopic coefficients together with a Darcy law are obtained for porous piezoelectric medium with random, not necessarily ergodic, distribution of pores in which a two-ionic electrolyte flows. Peculiarities of stochastic porosity are indicated.

Go to article

Editorial office


T. Kaczorek, Warsaw University of Technology

Deputy Editor-in Chief:

M. Kaźmierkowski, Warsaw University of Technology

A. Rogalski, Division IV Technical Sciences PAN

Board of Co-editors:

Artificial and Computational Intelligence

S. Osowski and B. Sawicki, Warsaw University of Technology

Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology

A. Liebert and R. Maniewski, Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering PAN

Civil Engineering

L. Czarnecki, Building Research Institute, ITB, Warsaw

Control, Robotics and Informatics

J. Klamka and A. Babiarz, Silesian Technical University

A. Borkowski, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics

M. Mrozowski and A. Lamęcki, Gdansk University of Technology

W. Woliński, Warsaw University of Technology

Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics

A. Styczek and A. Tylikowski, Warsaw University of Technology

Materials Science and Nanotechnology

B. Major and P. Czaja, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAN

T.A. Kowalewski and B. Blachowski, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

Power Systems and Power Electronics

M.P. Kazmierkowski, Warsaw University of Technology

International Editorial Advisory Board

I.V. Alexandrov, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Russia

R. Asthana, University of Wiscontin-Stout, Menomonie, USA

Xu Binshi, China Association of Plant Engineering, Beijing, P.R. China

F. Blaabjerg, Aalborg University, Denmark

C. Cecati, University of L’Aquila, Italy

A. Cichocki, RIKEN Institute, Tokyo, Japan

M. David, National Polytechnique de Toulouse, France

R. Ebner, Materials Centre Leoben, Leoben, Austria

E. Fornasini, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

L.G. Franquelo, University of Sevilla, Spain

M. Gad-el-Hak, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA

D. van Gemert, Catholic University Leuven, KU Leuven, Belgium

L. Keviczky, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary

V. Kučera, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

R. Kennel, Technical University Munich, Germany

E. Levi, Liverpool John Moore University, UK

G. Maier, Technical University of Milan, Milan, Italy

K.F. Man, City University of Hong Kong,

H.A. Mang, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria

H. Mihashi, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan

S. Mindess, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

D.A. Mlynski, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany

A.S. Nowak, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA

K. Ohnishi, Keio University, Yokohama, Japan

A. Öberg, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

W. Pedrycz, University of Alberta, Canada

S. Przemieniecki, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA

M. Razeghi, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA

J. Rodriguez, Technical University of Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso, Chile

J.V. Sloten, Catholic University Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

B.M. Wilamowski, University of Auburn, Alabama, USA

W. Włosiński, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

A.L. Yarin, Institute of Illinois at Chicago, USA

Du Xiangwan, Chinese Academy of Engineering, China

J. Żurada, Department of Computer Engineering, University of Louisville, USA


Editorial Office:

Pałac Kultury i Nauki

Wydział IV Nauk Technicznych PAN

Pl. Defilad 1

PL 00-901 Warszawa

Mrs Ewa Trojanowska

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors

About the Journal

The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published by the Division IV: Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The journal is peer‐reviewed and is published both in printed and electronic form ( It is established for the publication of original high quality papers from multidisciplinary Engineering sciences with the following topics preferred:

• Artificial and Computational Intelligence,

• Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology,

• Civil Engineering,

• Control, Informatics and Robotics,

• Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics,

• Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics,

• Material Science and Nanotechnology,

• Power Systems and Power Electronics.

General data:

Format of the journal – A4 printed and electronic form,

Paper type – offset

Colourfulness – full colour at an extra charge,

The volume of the journal – 200 pages (ca 20 papers) + 4 cover pages,

Frequency of publication – bimonthly,

ISSN: 0239-7528 (print version),

ISSN: 2300-1917 (on line version),

DOI: 10.2478/bpasts


Journal citation: Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech.

ISO: Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.-Tech. Sci.,


Acronym in the Editorial System: BPASTS

Journal Metrics:

JCR Impact Factor 2017: 1.361

5 Year Impact Factor 2017: 1.323

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.526

Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 1.208

Impact per Publication (IPP) 2015: 1.158

The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 2017: 25 points

Manuscript types:

Invited reviews presenting the state of the knowledge and/or devoted to novel topics,

• Refereed research papers reporting on original scientific or technological achievements,

• Refereed papers in special issues/sections serving as conference proceedings arranged by guest editors.

Special Section Policy

Proposals of original Special Sections within the scope of the Journal may be submitted to the Editorial Office. Special Section submission rules are described in detail at: Edytorial Systems

Guest Editor form needed for submitting a Special Section proposal: Edytorial systems

Manuscript Submission Policy

All manuscripts submitted for publication should be original. Manuscripts published or under consideration for publication elsewhere should not be submitted and will not be considered. Submission of a paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher.

However, manuscripts based on papers published at related conferences and workshops proceedings may be submitted for consideration provided that: (1) the papers are not identical (similarity index must be below 50%), (2) the authors cite their earlier conference paper on which this new work is based, (3) the journal publication includes clearly shown novel elements (e.g., more comprehensive experiments).

Manuscript submission for review

The Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech now employs a Web-based manuscript submission and peer-review tracking system called Editorial System. Authors must submit their manuscript electronically on the web:

From this entry page, access can be obtained to all information required for the submission of a manuscript. First‐time users must create an Author’s account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. All manuscripts receive individual identification codes that should be used in any correspondence with regard to the publication process. For the authors already registered in the Editorial System it is enough to enter their username and password to login as an author (Sign in).

Author(s) will be notified about registration and manuscript review process by e-mail.

The manuscripts must be uploaded as a single PDF file.

If you experience difficulties with the manuscript submission website, please contact the Copy Editor of the Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech (Anna Jurkiewicz: of authors and their affiliation should be removed from the manuscripts for the review process in order to have a fair evaluation of their manuscript. All authors of the manuscript are responsible for its content; they must have agreed to its publication and have given the corresponding author the authority to act on their behalf in all matters pertaining to publication. The Corresponding Author is responsible for informing the coauthors of the manuscript status throughout the submission, review, and production process. All submitted papers are checked using iThenticate plagiarism detection software.

Manuscript preparation

1. The manuscript should be written in clear and concise English.

2. For manuscript preparation please use the attached Word or LaTeX template.

3. Please remember that in the .pdf version of the manuscript for evaluation process author(s) name(s) and affiliation should be removed.

4. Authors should consult a recent issue of the journal for style if possible.

Manuscript decision and Proofs

Manuscript evaluations are assigned one of four outcomes: Accept, Minor Revisions, Major Revisions, and Reject. Manuscripts with "Minor Revision" do not require a second review. All manuscripts receiving a "Major Revision" evaluation must be subjected to a second review. Rejected manuscripts are given no further consideration. Normally, manuscripts that receive a "Major Revision" decision have only one additional chance for revision and the revised version should be uploaded to the Editorial System within six weeks. If the author(s) failed to make satisfactory changes, the manuscript is rejected. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit house style.

Transfer of Copyright Agreement

Once the paper is initially accepted, the authors are assumed to have transferred the copyright of the paper to the publisher. Please fill the attached Form, sign, and add to the final version of the manuscript as separate .pdf file.

It is also available on the webpage

Proofs will be sent to the author (first named author if no corresponding author is identified for multi-authored papers) and should be returned within 48 hours of receipt.

Fees for printing the article

The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published in Open Access, which means that all papers are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. By submitting a paper for publication, authors declare that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their paper. In exchange for a fee for printing, the PDF file of published paper is available at the Open Access platform:

National (foreign) authors:

• The flat fee of 1230 PLN (approximately 300 EUR) per paper

Exempt from the fee are:

• Authors of articles ordered by the Editorial Board (Invited papers)

50% discount for:

• Reviewers (who performed at least 5 reviews per year) – one paper per year

• Guest Editors (the discount is valid only within the special section guest-edited by the author)

Mandatory over-length charges of 200 PLN (approximately 50 EUR) per page

in case the paper exceeds

• 8 printed double-column pages for regular research papers,

• 8 printed double-column pages for Special issue/section papers,

• No limit for invited (review) papers.

In addition, each color page will be charged an additional fee according to the current cost of printing. Otherwise, the paper will be printed in black-white.

Information needed for Proforma Invoice

1. Author’s/Authors’ Last name(s), Name(s), e-mail

2. Title of the paper

3. Exact name of the payer (person / institution or other legal entity realizing the transfer)

4. Address of the payer

5. Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN, in Polish NIP) – only when paid by an institution or another legal entity!

Check list for final submission to the Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech (after review)

1. Is your manuscript up to date? Did you include references, which were published while your manuscript was being processed? It is expected that at least 20% of references are to journal papers published in the last two years. Authors are welcome to consider reference papers published in the Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech. In order to find the recent Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech. papers please visit Open Access platform:

2. Is your title adequate and is your abstract correctly written? In the age of electronic publications it is not easy to be noticed! Authors have to do everything possible so the paper will be seen and read. Therefore, very careful wording should be used in the title and in the abstract. Without a proper and interesting title and abstract a great paper might never be downloaded from the de Gruyter platform and read.

3. Does the manuscript clearly describe problem(s) and your accomplishments? Can your manuscript be shortened? Are there sentences or paragraphs that do not provide important information and can be eliminated?

4. Is the length of your manuscript adequate? Please notice that for long papers, you may face mandatory over length charges per page.

5. Please make sure that the fee for printing your manuscript is paid.

Open Access policy

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more