Applied sciences

Archives of Foundry Engineering

Content

Archives of Foundry Engineering | 2019 | vol. 19 | Online first |

Abstract

The results of testing the strength properties of experimental ceramic materials containing spending moulding sand after initial mechanical reclamation as a material for subsequent layers of the stucco composition were presented. Tests were carried out on spent moulding sands from various foundry technologies, i.e. sand with furfuryl resin and sand with hydrated sodium silicate. The spent, agglomerated moulding sand has undergone a crushing process. Next, the required granular fractions used for individual layers of the stucco material were separated. Ceramic samples, in which the spent moulding sand was a substitute for fresh silica sand in successive layers of the stucco composition, were prepared. As a reference material, identical ceramic samples were used but with all layers made from the fresh silica sand. Samples prepared in this way were used to determine the bending strength of ceramic materials in the temperature range from 20 to 900ºC. The obtained values of the bending strength have demonstrated that spent moulding sand can be used in investment casting with no adverse effect on the strength of ceramic materials.

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Abstract

The paper consists the problem of developing a scientific toolkit allowing to predict the thermal state of the ingot during its formation in all elements of the casting and rolling complex, between the crystallizer of the continuous casting machine and exit from the furnace. As the toolkit for the decision making task the predictive mathematical model of the ingot temperature field is proposed. Displacement between the various elements of the CRC is accounted for by changing the boundary conditions. Mass-average enthalpy is proposed as a characteristic of ingot cross-section temperature state. The next methods of solving a number of important problems with the use of medium mass enthalpy are developed: determination of the necessary heat capacity of ingots after the continuous casting machine for direct rolling without heating; determination of the rational time of alignment of the temperature field of ingots having sufficient heat capacity for rolling after casting; determination of the total amount of heat (heat capacity) required to supply the metal for heating ingots that have insufficient amount of internal heat.

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Abstract

This article deals with the effect of manganese that is the most applied element to eliminate the negative effect of iron in the investigated alloy AlSi7Mg0.3. In this time are several methods that are used for elimination harmful effect of iron. The most used method is elimination by applying the additive elements, so-called iron correctors. The influence of manganese on the morphology of excluded ironbased intermetallic phases was analysed at various iron contents (0.4; 0.8 and 1.2 wt. %). The effect of manganese was assessed in additions of 0.1; 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 wt. % Mn. The morphology of iron intermetallic phases was assessed using electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX analysis. The increase of iron content in investigated alloys caused the formation of more intermetallic phases and this effect has been more significant with higher concentrations of manganese. The measurements carried out also showed that alloys with the same Mn/Fe ratio can manifest different structures and characteristics of excluded iron-based intermetallic phases, which might, at the same time, be related to different resulting mechanical properties.

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Abstract

In this paper results of microstructural observations for series of CuZn39Pb2 alloys produced from qualified scraps are presented. The individual alloy melts were differentiated in terms of thermal parameters of continuous casting as well as refining methods and modifications. Structural observations performed by SEM and TEM revealed formation of different types of intermetallic phases including “hard particles”. EDS results show that “hard particles” are enrich in silicon, phosphorus, iron, chromium and nickel elements. Additionally, formation of Al-Fe-Si and Al-Cr in alloy melts was observed as well. It was found that quantity and morphology of intermetallic phases strongly depends upon the chemical composition of raw materials, process parameters, modifiers and refining procedure applied during casting. It was observed that refining process results in very effective refinement of intermetallic phases, whereas modifiers, particularly carbon-based, results in formation of large particles in the microstructure.

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Abstract

Analysis of the use of the Russian materials (liquid glass and softening additives) has been made in accordance with the modern requirements for use in the technological processes of casting as binding materials in the production of large-sized steel railway casting. The reasons for poor knockout of liquid glass mixtures have been investigated. A complex action softening additive has been recommended for a better knocking-out ability. This solution provides a softening effect at the points of maximum formation of the liquid glass matrix strength in the processes of polymorphic transformation of the material under the influence of elevated temperatures as the result of filling the mold cavity by the melt. It has been shown that the use of additives of complex action leads to the decrease in the specific work of the knockout by four – seven times depending on the composition of the mixture and the design features of the casting. Experimental-industrial tests of the proposed method for softening the liquid glass mixtures have been made and the "Front Buffer Stop" casting has been made (for the rolling stock of locomotives and railway wagons). The tests confirmed the effectiveness and expediency of implementation of new liquid glass mixtures with softening additives in conditions of foundry enterprises.

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Abstract

In the present investigation, the morphology of Ti inclusions in high strength tire cord steel was investigated and their precipitation behavior was discussed using a precipitation and growth model. The results show that Ti inclusions mainly exist in the form of TiN. The two-dimensional characterization of Ti inclusions is square-like with sharp edges and corners, while its three-dimensional shape exhibits a cubic or rectangular-prism morphology. The Ti inclusions do not precipitate when the solid fraction of tire cord during solidification is less than 0.987, and their final radius is closely related to the cooling rate and initial concentration product. The higher the cooling speed, the smaller the final radius, when the cooling speed is constant, the final radius of Ti inclusions is mainly determined by the initial concentration product, w[N]0×w[Ti]0. In order to retard the precipitation and growth of Ti inclusions in tire cord steel, the cooling rate and initial concentration product can be taken into consideration.

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Abstract

Main goal of the paper is to present the algorithm serving to solve the heat conduction inverse problem. Authors consider the heat conduction equation with the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative and with the second and third kind boundary conditions. This type of model with fractional derivative can be used for modelling the heat conduction in porous media. Authors deal with the heat conduction inverse problem, which, in this case, consists in identifying an unknown thermal conductivity coefficient. Measurements of temperature, in selected point of the region, are the input data for investigated inverse problem. Basing on this information, a functional describing the error of approximate solution is created. Minimizing of this functional is necessary to solve the inverse problem. In the presented approach the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm is used for minimization.

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Abstract

The graphite form in cast iron is the structure parameter deciding on its all physical and mechanical properties. Three basic forms of graphite: flake, vermicular (compact) and nodular (spheroidal) are singled out in standard cast iron grades, without a heat treatment. Standards of individual grades of cast iron the most often allow only the homogeneous graphite form, sometimes with addition of 5÷10% of the other form. The interesting and - in the authors opinion - future-oriented material can constitute cast iron in which various forms of graphite are present, e.g. in comparative amounts: spherical and vermicular cast irons. Cast iron within which graphite occurs in two or three forms was named „Vari-Morph” (VM) cast iron, i.e. the one in which spherical and vermicular or vermicular and flake graphite occur in a wide range of proportions. The results of investigations of these new cast iron grades and their properties are presented in the hereby paper.

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Abstract

Examples of cast grates whose construction was based on previously used "old" patterns of the technological equipment for heat treatment furnaces (TEq) are presented. Manufacturers of this type of castings have at their disposal numerous earlier designs of the applied TEq. Their adaptation for the needs of a new order, i.e. the creation of a new design or modification of the already existing one, significantly reduces both cost and time of the implementation. It also allows making new grate constructions of various shapes and sizes, reducing in this way the number of patterns stored by the manufacturer of castings. The examples of cast grates shown and discussed in this study document the variety of ways that can be used when making them from the already existing patterns or castings. The presented grates were made using master patterns, entire castings or their fragments, and modular segments.

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Abstract

Production of defect free castings requires good understanding of casting characteristics like mold filling ability and volume deficit characteristic. Pin test piece with cylindrical cores proposed by Engler and Ellerbrok was used to study the mold filling ability. Volume deficit characteristics experiments were conducted using the method designed by Engler. Alloy composition, Mold coat and Pouring temperature were considered as process parameters for the present study and experimental plan has been taken up through design of experiments. The alloy composition is most significant in influencing the mold filling ability, where as pouring temperature is for volume deficit. The Correlation Co-efficient value obtained is -0.98901 indicating strong a negative relation between mold filling ability and volume deficit characteristics. Negative values indicate a relationship between mold filling ability and volume deficit such that as values for mold filling ability increase, for volume deficit decrease.

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J. Szajnar
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J. Jezierski

SUBJECT EDITORS
Theoretical Aspects of Casting Processes
K. Eigenfeld – Freiberg, Germany
E. Guzik – Kraków, Poland
T. G. Mathia - Lyon, France
W. Wołczyński – Kraków, Poland
Innovative Foundry Technologies and Materials
T. Elbel – Ostrava, Czech Republic
Z. Ignaszak – Poznań, Poland
O. P. Pandey – Punjab, India
A. Pereira - Vigo, Spain
Foundry Processes Computer Aiding
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J.S. Suchy – Kraków, Poland
Mechanization, Automation and Robotics in Foundry
J. Bast – Freiberg, Germany
R. Wrona – Kraków, Poland
Transport Systems in Foundry
J. Dańko – Kraków, Poland
Z. Li – Shijiazhuang, China
Castings Quality Management
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J. D. B. de Mello - Santa Monica, Brazil
M. Perzyk – Warszawa, Poland
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