Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection

Content

Archives of Environmental Protection | 2012 | vol. 38 | No 2 |

Abstract

This work presents the results of a study whose aim was to determine the influence of algal blooms on precipitation of heavy metals. The scope of the study covered culture of a mixed population made up of Scenedesmus and Pseudokirchneriella algae in experimental conditions and initiating a metal biosorption process with the use of culture biomass by administering ions of Zn(II) and Ni(II). The process was controlled by assessing the level of biosorption of metals entered at a one-off basis in the form of Zn(II) and Ni(II) salts or in the form of mixture of both ions, in comparison to the control sample, at different exposure times (2 hours and 24 hours). The presence of metals was determined both in the biomass and in the culture medium. The presented results of the study confirm the effectiveness of Chlorophyta in the process of zinc and nickel biosorption. A phenomenon of competitiveness between the metals was observed when they were administered at the same time.

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Abstract

Popular statistical techniques, such as Spearman's rank correlation matrix, principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression analysis were applied to analyze a large set of water quality data of the Rybnik Reservoir generated during semiannual monitoring. Water samples collected at 9 sampling sites located along the main axis of the reservoir were tested for 14 selected parameters: concentrations of co-occurring elements, ions and physicochemical parameters. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of those parameters on inorganic arsenic occurrence in Rybnik Reservoir water by means of multivariate statistical methods. The spatial distribution of arsenic in Rybnik Power Station reservoir was also included. Inorganic arsenic As(III), As(V) concentrations were determined by hydride generation method (HG-AAS) using SpectrAA 880 spectrophotometer (Varian) coupled with a VGA-77 system for hydride generation and ECT-60 electrothermal furnace. Spearman's rank correlation matrix was used in order to find existing correlations between total inorganic arsenic (AsTot) and other parameters. The results of this analysis suggest that As was positively correlated with PO43-; Fe and TDS. PCA confirmed these observations. Principal component analysis resulted in three PC's explaining 57% of the total variance. Loading values for each component indicate that the processes responsible for As release and distribution in Rybnik Reservoir water were: leaching from bottom sediments together with other elements like Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Ni, Ca (PC1) and co-precipitation with PO43-, Fe and Mn (PC3) regulated by physicochemical properties like T and pH (PC2). Finally, multiple linear regression model has been developed. This model incorporates only 8 (T, pH, PO43-, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, TDS) out of initial 14 variables, as the independent predictors of total As contamination level. This study illustrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and interpretation of complex environmental data sets.

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Abstract

The paper presents the investigations aimed at the determination of the effect of time and wavelength of ultrasound field on the value of capillary suction time (CST), sludge thickening and dry matter of the excess sludge subjected to the process of stabilization.

The investigations were carried out on the excess sludge which comes from communal waste treatment plant. The sludge was exposed to ultrasound field, using ultrasound generator with power of 1500 W, frequency of 20 kHz and amplitude 39.42 μm (which corresponded to the amplitude of 100%). Sonication of the sludge was carried out for different amplitudes and sonication times. The non-conditioned sludge and the sludge initially conditioned with ultrasound field were subjected to the process of stabilization in laboratory flasks (V = 0.5 dm3) for the period of 10 days. On each day, sludge thickening and dewatering capacities were determined.

The sludge subjected to the effect of ultrasound field exhibited elevated levels of CST. However, the sonication time had positive effect on the increase in the degree of thickening for each of the amplitudes studied. Also, the process of stabilization positively affected final thickening and dewatering of the sludge.

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Abstract

In Poland, according to the statistical data, about 40% of sewage sludges originating from wastewater treatment plants are applied in the agriculture. The mentioned way of application of sewage sludges causes the hazard of contamination of environment with carcinogenic compounds due to the presence of some organic micropollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The proposal of changing UE Directive obligates control of organic pollutants (PAHs and others) in sewage sludges applied in the agriculture.

The aim of the investigations was to estimate the persistence of PAHs under stored conditions by determining half-life of their decomposition. Eight carcinogenic PAHs, among 16 compounds, listed by EPA were determined. In this study, the quantity changes in the concentration of PAHs in stored sewage sludges were investigated. Sewage sludges were stored under aerobic conditions for 16 weeks. At the same time the sewage sludges with sodium azide added, in order to deactivate the microorganisms (abiotic samples), were also stored. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to qualify and quantify PAHs in 2- and 4-week intervals. Sewage sludges were taken two fold from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. In practice, the sewage sludges are directed to the disposal site. The initial concentration of 16 PAHs in sewage sludge was equal to 582 μg/kg.d.m. The changes in the concentration of PAHs corresponded to exponential function. Values of correlation coefficients indicate a significant dependence of PAHs persistence and concentration on time exposition. Under experimental conditions the half-lives of individual compounds were diversed. In biotic samples half-life of hydrocarbons was in the range of 17 to 126 days. Half-life of PAHs in abiotic sewage sludges was in the range of 32 to 2048 days. The most persistent were benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(b) fluoranthene, respectively. A significant dependence of PAHs' decrease on the presence of microorganisms in sewage sludges after 10 weeks of storage was found.

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Abstract

The last two decades have brought a significant modernization in methods of cultivation in greenhouses. Soilless cultures, isolated from soils, have become a common practice, similarly as fertigation (fertilization + irrigation) installations, although most of them are applied in the open system (with no recirculation), where excess nutrient solution is removed straight to soil. This situation was the reason why it was decided to conduct studies, extended over a period of many years, on the estimation of environmental pollution caused by discharged drainage waters containing mineral fertilizers in economically important cultures in Poland (anthurium, tomato, cucumber). On the basis of the chemical composition of drainage waters and amounts of nutrient solution spillway from culture beds data were estimated concerning pollution of the soil medium by the nutrient solution. The level of pollution was dependent on nutrient requirements of crops and the length of the vegetation period. The highest environmental pollution is caused by intensive tomato growing (in kg·month·ha-1): N-NO3 (up to 245), K (up to 402), Ca (up to 145) and S-SO4 (up to 102). A lesser threat is posed by metal microelements: Fe (up to 2.69), Mn (up to 0.19), Zn (up to 0.52) and Cu (up to 0.09). Lower contamination of the natural environment is generated in cultures with lower nutrient requirements (anthurium) and in the case of culture on organic substrates. With an increase in ecological awareness of producers recirculation systems should be implemented in the production practice, in which drainage waters do not migrate directly to soil, but are repeatedly used to feed crops.

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Abstract

The aims of this study were to identify the taxonomic diversity and abundance of psammonic ciliate communities in mesotrophic and eutrophic lakes (Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland, eastern Poland). The effect of selected physical and chemical water parameters on ciliates community was also analysed. Psammon samples were collected during three seasons: spring, summer and autumn of 2010. In each lake, in the psammolittoral, samples were collected in the euarenal, higroarenal, and hydroarenal zones. A total of 53 ciliate taxa were recorded. The highest value of the Shannon-Weaver index was recorded in summer in eutrophic lake (2.79). At the same time in mesotrophic lake, a lower value of the index was determined (0.79). The mean numbers of ciliates ranged from 516 ind.cm-3 in the eutrophic lake to 191 ind. cm-3 in the mesotrophic lake. In eutrophic lake, the highest number of ciliates was recorded in the euarenal (649 ind. cm-3), and the lowest in the higroarenal (425 ind. cm-3). In the mesotrophic lake, the highest average numbers were determined in the higroarenal (235 ind. cm-3), and the lowest in the hydroarenal (155 ind. cm-3). Irrespective of the lake trophy, Hymenostomata (Paramecium sp., Glaucoma sp., Uronema nigricans) occurred in the highest numbers (from 13 to 95%). The results demonstrated that N-NH4, P-PO4 and TOC can strongly regulate the abundance and taxonomic composition of ciliates. The strongest correlations between numbers of ciliates and physical and chemical water parameters were observed in the higro- and hydroarenal zones of the eutrophic lake.

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Abstract

Until now, dust arising from lime manufacture has been considered harmless to the environment so it has been investigated marginally from the standpoint of environmental protection, especially when it came to magnetic properties and heavy metal content. The aim of the research was filling the gap in this area. The research comprised measurements of magnetic susceptibility, the content of heavy metals, reaction (pH) and specific conductivity of lime dust and also raw material and fuel used for lime production. The samples were taken from one of the lime plants located in Opole Province. Similar investigations were also performed for dust taken from the nearby cement plant using dry method of cement production. It was proven that magnetic susceptibility, heavy metal content and conductivity of lime dust was lower in comparison to cement dust, which resulted from the fact that the lime plant used neither low raw materials nor additives. Due to the high atmosphere dust level in the vicinity of the investigated plants, extremely basic reaction of the tested dust and high content of metals, the studied dust cause alkalization of soils and contribute to the increase of heavy metal content in soils, posing a threat to the environment.

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Abstract

The paper presents the results of preliminary studies on the properties of products made by vitrification of waste containing fly ashes from sewage sludge incineration. The performed tests of hazardous substances leached from the ashes, as well as the results of other laboratory tests confirmed the efficacy of vitrification. It has been found that the resulting products (sinters) could be used as a substitute aggregate for road foundations.

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Abstract

The aim of the presented investigations was to examine changes in the intensity of dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase activities as well as of the dynamics of selected groups of microorganisms in the soil under the cultivation of winter triticale following the application of the following seed dressings: (a.s.) flutriafol 2.5% + fludioxonil 2.5% in two doses and (a.s.) carboxin and tiuram. The experiment had a field character. The number of microorganisms (total bacteria, fungi, oligotrophic, copiotrophic and Azotobacter) was determined by the plate method on adequate agar substrates. Activity levels of the selected enzymes were defined using the spectrometrical method.

The obtained results indicate a change in the dehydrogenase and phoshatase activity in soil depending on the seed dressing applied in the experiment as well as at the date of investigations. The number of microorganisms in the soil underwent fluctuations depending on the developmental stage of triticale and the applied fungicide. The performed experiment demonstrated that counts of microorganisms in the soil underwent fluctuations depending on the developmental stage of triticale and the applied fungicide.

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Abstract

The paper describes the effectiveness of mycoestrogen removal in an integrated ozonation - nanofiltration system for water treatment. The results were compared to those obtained for ozonation and nanofiltration carried out as single processes. It has been found that the effectiveness of mycoestrogen removal in the integrated system was higher than that observed for single ozonation. During ozonation, the removal of micropollutants was affected by the dose of an oxidizing agent and type of treated water. As far as nanofiltration is concerned, its effectiveness both in the integrated system and as a single process was similar. Nevertheless, it is advisable to precede nanofiltration with ozonation because of membrane efficiency.

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Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Czesława Rosik-Dulewska

Editorial Advisory Board
Michał Bodzek
Katarzyna Juda-Rezler
Korneliusz Miksch

Assistant Editor
Katarzyna Panz

 

Editorial Board:

President:
Lucjan Pawłowski

Members:
Brian A. Bolto (Australia)
Hubert Bril (France)
Bart Van der Bruggen (Belgium)
Zhihong Cao (China)
Pen-Chi Chiang (R.O.C.)
Wolfgang Frenzel (Germany)
Reinhard F. Hüttl (Germany)
Piotr Kowalik (Poland)
Joanna Kyzioł-Komosińska (Poland)
Rajmund Michalski (Poland)
Anuska Mosquera Corral (Spain)
Takashi Nakamura (Japan)
Józef M. Pacyna (Norway)
Wim H. Rulkens (The Nederlands)
Corrado Sarzanini (Italy)
Hans Martin Seip (Norway)
Jan Siuta (Poland)
Jerzy Sobota (Poland)
Joanna Surmacz-Górska (Poland)
Jadwiga Szczepańska (Poland)
Christopher G. Uchrin (USA)
Tomasz Winnicki (Poland)
Xiaoping Zhu (USA)
Jerzy Zwoździak (Poland) 

Contact

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Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors

Archives of Environmental Protection is a quarterly published jointly by the Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Committee of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Thanks to the cooperation with outstanding scientists from all over the world we are able to provide our readers with carefully selected, most interesting and most valuable texts, presenting the latest state of research in the field of engineering and environmental protection.

Scope

The Journal principally accepts for publication original research papers covering such topics as:

- Air quality, air pollution prevention and treatment;

- Wastewater treatment and utilization;

- Waste management;

- Hydrology and water quality, water treatment;

- Soil protection and remediation;

- Transformations and transport of organic/inorganic pollutants in the environment;

- Measurement techniques used in environmental engineering and monitoring;

- Other topics directly related to environmental engineering and environment protection.

The Journal accepts also authoritative and critical reviews of the current state of knowledge in the topic directly relating to the environment protection.

If unsure whether the article is within the scope of the Journal, please send an abstract via e-mail to: aep@ipis.zabrze.pl

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The following are the requirements for manuscripts submitted for publication:

• The manuscript (with illustrations, tables, abstract and references) should not exceed 20 pages. In case the manuscript exceeds the required number of pages, we suggest contacting the Editor.

• The manuscript should be written in English.

• The manuscript ought to be submitted in doc or docx format in three files:

– text.doc – file containing the entire text, without title, keywords, authors names and affiliations, and without tables and figures;

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• The text should be prepared in A4 format, 2.5 cm margins, 1.5 spaced, preferable using Time New Roman font with no less than 12 point. The text should be divided into sections and subsections according to general rules of manuscript editing. The proposed place of tables and figures insertion should be marked in the text.

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• References should be cited in the text of an article by providing the name and publication year in brackets, e.g. (Nowak 2019). When a cited paper has two authors, both surnames connected with the word “and” should be provided, e.g. (Nowak and Kowalski 2019). When a cited paper has more than one author, surname of its first author, abbreviation ‘et al.’ and publication year should be provided, e.g. (Kowalski et al. 2019). When there are more than two publications cited in one place they should be divided with coma, e.g. (Kowalski et al. 2019, Nowak 2019, Nowak and Kowalski 2019). Internet sources should be cited like other texts - providing the name and publication year in brackets.

• References should be listed at the end of the article ordered alphabetically by surname of the first author. References should be made according to the following rules:

1. Journal:

Surnames and initials. (publication year). Title of the article, Journal Name, volume, number, pages, DOI.

For example:

Nowak, S.W., Smith, A.J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of the article, Archives of Environmental Protection, 10, 2, pp. 93–98, DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330.

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Kraszewski, J. & Kinecki, K. (2019). Title of book, Work & Sudies, Zabrze 2019.

3. Edited book:

Surnames and initials of text authors. (publishing year). Title of cited chapter, in: Title of the book, Surnames and initials of editor(s). (Ed.)/(Eds.). Publisher, Place, pages.

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Reynor, J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of chapter, in: Title of the cited book, Kaźmierski, I. & Jasiński, C. (Eds.). Work & Studies, Zabrze, pp. 145–189.

4. Internet sources:

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Kowalski, M. (2018). Title, (http://www.krakow.pios.gov.pl/publikacje/2009/ (03.12.2018)).

5. Patents:

Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009.

Smith, I.M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

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Titles of cited materials should be translated into English. Information of the language the materials were published in should be provided at the end.

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Nowak, S.W. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of article, Journal Name, 10, 2, pp. 93–98, DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330. (in Polish)

Not more than 30 references should be cited in the original research paper.

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All the submitted articles are assessed by the Editorial Board. If positively assessed by at least two editors, Editor in Chief, along with department editors selects two independent reviewers from recognized authorities in the discipline. Reviewers receive a text of the article (without personal data of Authors) and review forms applicable in the journal. In justified cases, reviewers receive additional questions regarding the article. Review process usually lasts from 1 to 4 months.

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Proofreading and Author Correction

All articles published in the Archives of Environmental Protection go through professional proofreading process. If there are too many language errors that prevent understanding of the text, the article is sent back to Authors with a request to correct the indicated fragments or - in extreme cases – to re-translate the text.

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Archives of Environmental Protection jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

Archives of Environmental Protection is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-SA 4.

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